This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Asynchronous Operations in Distributed Concurrency Control
May/June 2003 (vol. 15 no. 3)
pp. 721-733
P. Krishna Reddy, IEEE Computer Society

Abstract—Distributed locking is commonly adopted for performing concurrency control in distributed systems. It incorporates additional steps for handling deadlocks. This activity is carried out by methods based on wait-for-graphs or probes. The present study examines detection of conflicts based on enhanced local processing for distributed concurrency control. In the proposed “edge detection” approach, a graph-based resolution of access conflicts has been adopted. The technique generates a uniform wait-for precedence order at distributed sites for transactions to execute. The earlier methods based on serialization graph testing are difficult to implement in a distributed environment. The edge detection approach is a fully distributed approach. It presents a unified technique for locking and deadlock detection exercises. The technique eliminates many deadlocks without incurring message overheads.

[1] D. Agrawal, A. El Abbadi, and R.C. Steinke, “Epidemic Algorithms in Replicated Databases,” Proc. 16th Symp. Database Systems (PODS), pp. 161-172, 1997.
[2] S. Bhalla, “Executing Serializable Transactions within a Hard Real-Time Database System,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. High Performance Computing (HiPC '98), pp. 408-415, Dec. 1998.
[3] S. Bhalla, “The Performance of an Efficient Distributed Synchronization and Recovery Algorithm,” J. Supercomputing, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 199-219, June 2001.
[4] P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[5] Y. Breitbart and H.F. Korth, “Replication and Consistency: Being Lazy Helps Sometimes,” Proc. 16th Symp. Database Systems (PODS), pp. 173-184, 1999.
[6] Y. Breitbart, R. Komondoor, R. Rastogi, S. Seshadri, and A. Silberschatz, “Update Propagation Protocols For Replicated Databases,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, SIGMOD Record, vol. 28, no. 2, June 1999.
[7] A.N. Choudhary, “Cost of Distributed Deadlock Detection: A Performance Study,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp.174-181, Feb. 1990.
[8] G. Coulouris, J. Dollimore, and T. Kindberg, “Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design,” Time and Global States, chapter 10, Addision Wesley, 2001.
[9] L. Do, P. Ram, and P. Drew, “The Need for Distributed Asynchronous Transcations,” SIGMOD Record, vol. 28, no. 2, June 1999.
[10] M.H. Eich and S.H. Garad, “The Performance of Flow Graph Locking,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 477-483, Apr. 1990.
[11] J.N. Gray, P. Homan, R. Obermarck, and H. Korth, “A Straw Man Analysis of the Probability of Waiting and Deadlock,” IBM Technical Report RJ 3066, 1981.
[12] J. Gray, P. Helland, P. O'Neil, and D. Shasha, “The Dangers of Replication and a Solution,” Proc. 1996 ACM SIGMOD Conf. Management of Data, SIGMOD Record, pp. 173-182, June 1996.
[13] N. Katoh, T. Ibaraki, and T. Kameda, ”Cautious Transaction Schedulers with Admission Control,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 205-229, June 1985.
[14] N. Krivokapic, A. Kemper, and E. Gudes, “Deadlock Detection in Distributed Database Systems: A New Algorithm and a Comparative Analysis,” Very Large Databases J., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 79-100, Oct. 1999.
[15] A. Kshemkalyani and M. Singhal, “On Characterization and Correctness of Distributed Deadlock Detection,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 44-59, July 1994.
[16] P.K. Reddy and S. Bhalla, “Deadlock Prevention in a Distributed Database System,” SIGMOD Record, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 40-46, Sept. 1993.
[17] P.K. Reddy and S. Bhalla, “A Non-Blocking Transaction Data Flow Graph Based Protocol for Replicated Databases,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 829-834, Oct. 1995.
[18] I.K. Ryu and A. Thomasian, “Performance Analysis of Dynamic Locking with the No-Waiting Policy,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 7, July 1990.
[19] S.C. Shyu, V.O.K. Li, and C.P. Weng, “An Abortion Free Distributed Deadlock Detection/Resolution Algorithm,” Proc. IEEE 10th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 1-8, June 1990.
[20] S.C. Shyu, V.O.K. Li, and C.P. Weng, “Performance Analysis of Static Locking in Distributed Database Systems,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 741-751, June 1990.
[21] M.K. Sinha and N. Natarajan, “A Priority Based Distributed Deadlock Detection Algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 11, pp. 67-80, Jan. 1985.
[22] M. Singhal, “Deadlock Detection in Distributed Systems,” Computer, pp. 37-47, Nov. 1989.

Index Terms:
Concurrency control, deadlock avoidance, distributed algorithms, distributed databases, nonblocking protocols, serializability.
P. Krishna Reddy, Subhash Bhalla, "Asynchronous Operations in Distributed Concurrency Control," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 721-733, May-June 2003, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2003.1198401
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.