This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Transaction Processing in Mobile, Heterogeneous Database Systems
November/December 2002 (vol. 14 no. 6)
pp. 1330-1346

Abstract—As technological advances are made in software and hardware, the feasibility of accessing information "any time, anywhere" is becoming a reality. Furthermore, the diversity and amount of information available to a given user is increasing at a rapid rate. In a mobile computing environment, a potentially large number of users may simultaneously access the global data; therefore, there is a need to provide a means to allow concurrent management of transactions. Current multidatabase concurrency control schemes do not address the limited bandwidth and frequent disconnection associated with wireless networks. This paper proposes a new hierarchical concurrency control algorithm. The proposed concurrency control algorithm—v-lock—uses global locking tables created with semantic information contained within the hierarchy. The locking tables are used to serialize global transactions, detect and remove global deadlocks. Additionally, data replication, at the mobile unit, is used to limit the effects of the restrictions imposed by a mobile environment. The replicated data provides additional availability in case of a weak connection or disconnection. Current research has concentrated on page and file-based caching or replication schemes to address the availability and consistency issues in a mobile environment. In a mobile, multidatabase environment, local autonomy restrictions prevent the use of a page or file-based data replication scheme. This paper proposes a new data replication scheme to address the limited bandwidth and local autonomy restrictions. Queries and the associated data are cached at the mobile unit as a complete object. Consistency is maintained by using a parity-based invalidation scheme. A simple prefetching scheme is used in conjunction with caching to further improve the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Finally, a simulator was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms. The simulation results are presented and discussed.

[1] N. Suri,M. Hugue, and C. Walter,"Synchronization Issues in Real-Time Systems," Proc. IEEE: Special Issue on Real-Time Computing, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 41-54, Jan. 1994.
[2] R. Agrawal, M. Carey, and M. Livny, “Models for Studying Concurrency Control Performance: Alternatives and Implications,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, 1985.
[3] B. Badrinath, “Designing Distributed Algorithms for Mobile Computing Networks,” Computer Comm., vol. 19, no. 4, Apr. 1996.
[4] B. Badrinath and T. Imielinski, “Replication and Mobility,” Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Management of Replicated Data, Nov. 1992.
[5] P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[6] Y. Breitbart, A. Silberschatz, and G. Thompson, “An Update Mechanism for Multidatabase Systems,” IEEE Data Eng. Bull., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 12-18, Sept. 1987.
[7] Y. Breitbart, H. Garcia-Molina, and A. Silberschatz, “Overview of Multidatabase Transaction Management,” Very Large Databases J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 181-239, Oct. 1992.
[8] Y. Breitbart and A. Silberschatz, “Performance Evaluation of Two Multidatabase Transaction Management Algorithms,” Computing Systems, vol. 6, no. 3, Summer 1993.
[9] M. Bright, A. Hurson, and S. Pakzad, “A Taxonomy and Current Issues in Multidatabase Systems,” Computer, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 50-60, Mar. 1992.
[10] M.W. Bright, A.R. Hurson, and S. Pakzad, “Automated Resolution of Semantic Heterogeneity in Multidatabases,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 212-253, June 1994.
[11] O. Bukhres, “Performance Comparison of Distributed Deadlock Detection Algorithms,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Eng., 1992.
[12] C. Liu and P. Cao, "Maintaining Strong Cache Consistency for the World-Wide Web," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 47, no. 4, Apr. 1998, pp. 445-457.
[13] Y.C. Chehadeh, A.R. Hurson, and D. Tavangarian, “Object Organization on Single and Parallel Broadcast Channel,” High Performance Computing, 2001.
[14] P.K. Chrysanthis, “Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems, pp. 77-82, Oct. 1993.
[15] T.H. Cormen,C.E. Leiserson, and R.L. Rivest,Introduction to Algorithms.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press/McGraw-Hill, 1990.
[16] K. Dash, A. Hurson, S. Phoha, and C. Chehadeh, “Summary Schemas Model: A Scheme for Handling Global Information Sharing,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Intelligent Information Management Systems, pp. 47-51, 1994.
[17] A. Demers, K. Pertersen, M. Spreitzer, D. Terry, M. Theier, and B. Welch, “The Bayou Architecture: Support for Data Sharing among Mobile Users,” IEEE Proc. Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, Dec. 1994.
[18] T. Devirmis and O. Ulosoy, “Design and Evaluation of a New Transaction Execution Model for Multidatabase Systems,” Information Sciences, vol. 102, pp. 203-238, 1997.
[19] W. Du and A.K. Elmagarmid, "Quasi Serializability: A Correctness Criterion for Global Concurrency Control in Interbase," Proc. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 347-355, 1989.
[20] M.H. Dunham, A. Helal, and S. Balakrishnan, “A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior,” ACM J. Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 149-162, 1997.
[21] A. Elmagarmid, J. Jain, and T. Furukawa, “Wireless Client/Server Computing for Personal Information Services and Applications,” ACM SIGMOD RECORD, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 16-21, Dec. 1995.
[22] M. Faiz, A. Zaslavsky, and B. Srinivasan, “Revising Replication Strategies for Mobile Computing Environments,” Proc. ECOOP 95 Workshop Mobility and Replication, 1995.
[23] A.A. Farrag and M.T. Ozsu, “Using Semantic Knowledge of Transactions to Increase Concurrency,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 503-525, Dec. 1989.
[24] M.J. Franklin, M.J. Carey, and M. Livny, “Transactional Client-Server Cache Consistency: Alternatives and Performance,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 315-363, Sept. 1997.
[25] D. Geogakopoulos, M. Rusinkiewiez, and A. Sheth, “Using Tickets to Enforce the Serializability of Multidatabase Transactions,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 166-180, Feb. 1994.
[26] J. Gray and A. Reuter, Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques, Morgan Kauffman, 1993.
[27] J. Gwertzman and M. Seltzer, “World-Wide Web Cache Consistency,” Proc. 1996 USENIX Technical Conf., Jan. 1996.
[28] P. Honeyman, L. Huston, J. Rees, and D. Bachmann, "The Little Work Project," Proc. Third IEEE Workshop on Workstation Operating Systems, 1992.
[29] D. Kottmann, “Serializing Operations into the Past and Future: A Paradigm for Disconnected Operations on Replicated Objects,” Proc. ECOOP 95 Workshop Mobility and Replication, 1995.
[30] H. Lei and D. Duchamp, “An Analytical Approach to File Prefetching,” Proc. 1997 USENIX Ann. Technical Conf., Jan. 1997.
[31] J. Lim and A. Hurson, “Heterogeneous Data Access in a Mobile Environment—Issues and Solutions,” Advances in Computers, vol. 49, pp. 119-178, 1999.
[32] S. Mehrotra, H. Korth, and A. Silberschatz, “Concurrency Control in Hierarchical Multidatabase Systems,” The Very Large Database J., vol. 6, pp. 152-172, 1997.
[33] J.M. Metzner, "Efficient Replicated Remote File Comparison," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 651-660, May 991.
[34] R.H. Patterson, G. Gibson, E. Ginting, D. Stodolsky, and J. Zelenka, "Informed Prefetching and Caching," Proc. 15th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles, pp. 79-95, Dec. 1995.
[35] E. Pitoura, “A Replication Schema to Support Weak Connectivity in Mobile Information Systems,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA), Sept. 1996.
[36] E. Pitoura and B. Bhargava, “A Framework for Providing Consistent and Recoverable Agent-Based Access to Heterogeneous Mobile Databases,” Sigmod Record, vol. 24, no. 3, Sept. 1995.
[37] E. Pitoura and B. Bhargava, “Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments,” Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, 1995.
[38] C. Pu, G.E. Kaiser, and N. Hutchinson, "Split-Transaction for Open-Ended Activities," Proc. 14th VLCB Conf., pp. 26-37, May 1988.
[39] P. Reiher, J. Heidemann, D. Ratner, G. Skinner, and G. Popek, “Resolving File Conflicts in the Ficus File System,” Proc. 1994 USENIX Conf., 1994.
[40] M. Satyanarayanan, “Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing,” Proc. 15th ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, May 1996.
[41] M. Satyanarayanan, B. Noble, P. Kumar, and M. Price, “Application-Aware Adaptation for Mobile Computing,” Proc. Sixth ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, Sept. 1994.
[42] M. Satyanarayanan, J.J. Kistler, and L.B. Mummert, “Experience with Disconnected Operation in a Mobile Computing Environment,” Proc. 1993 USENIX Symp. Mobile and Location-Independent Computing, Aug. 1993.
[43] K. Segun, A.R. Hurson, V. Desai, A. Spink, and L.L. Miller, “Transaction Management in a Mobile Data Access System,” Ann. Rev. Scalable Computing, vol. 3, 2001.
[44] A. Wolski and J. Veijalainen, “2PC Agent Method: Achieving Serializability in Presence of Failures in a Heterogeneous Multidatabase,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Databases, Parallel Architectures, and Their Applications, pp. 321-330, 1990.
[45] A. Zhang, M. Bhargava, and O. Bukhres, “Ensuring Relaxed Atomicity for Flexible Transactions in Multidatabase Systems,” Proc. ACM-SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, 1994.

Index Terms:
Mobile computing environment, global information sharing process, concurrency control, caching and prefetching, simulation and analysis.
Citation:
James B. Lim, A.R. Hurson, "Transaction Processing in Mobile, Heterogeneous Database Systems," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1330-1346, Nov.-Dec. 2002, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2002.1047771
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.