This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
On Scheduling Atomic and Composite Continuous Media Objects
March/April 2002 (vol. 14 no. 2)
pp. 447-455

In multiuser multimedia information systems (e.g., movie-on-demand, digital-editing), scheduling the retrievals of continuous media objects becomes a challenging task. This is because of both intra and inter Iobject time dependencies. Intraobject time dependency refers to the real-time display requirement of a continuous media object. Interobject time dependency is the temporal relationships defined among multiple continuous media objects. In order to compose tailored multimedia presentations, a user might define complex time dependencies among multiple continuous media objects with various lengths and display bandwidths. Scheduling the retrieval tasks corresponding to the components of such a presentation in order to respect both inter and intra task time dependencies is the focus of this study. To tackle this task scheduling problem (CRS), we start with a simpler scheduling problem (ARS) where there is no inter task time dependency (e.g., movie-on-demand). Next, we investigate an augmented version of ARS (termed $ARS^+$) where requests reserve displays in advance (e.g., reservation-based movie-on-demand). Finally, we extend our techniques proposed for $ARS$ and $ARS^+$ to address the $CRS$ problem. We also provide formal definition of these scheduling problems and proof of their NP-hardness.

[1] J.F. Allen, “Maintaining Knowledge about Temporal Intervals,” Comm. ACM, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 832–843, 1983.
[2] S. Berson, L. Golubchik, and R.R. Muntz, “Fault-Tolerant Design of Multimedia Servers,” Proc. SIGMOD '95, pp. 364–375, May 1995.
[3] Multimedia Systems, J.F. Buford, ed., Addison-Wesley, 1994.
[4] S. Chaudhuri, S. Ghandeharizadeh, and C. Shahabi, “Avoiding Retrieval Contention for Composite MultimediaObjects,” Proc. Very Large Database Conf., 1995.
[5] Multimedia Information Storage and Management, S.M. Chung, ed., Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[6] M. Garey and R. Graham, “Bounds for Multiprocessor Scheduling with Resource Constraints,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 187-200, June 1975.
[7] M. Garey, R. Graham, D. Johnson, and A. Yao, “Resource Constrained Scheduling as Generalized Bin Packing,” J. Combinatorial Theory (A), vol. 21, pp. 257-298, 1976.
[8] M. Garey and D. Johnson, “Complexity Results for Multiprocessor Scheduling under Resource Constraints,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 4, pp. 397-411, 1975.
[9] A. Ghafoor, “Special Issue on Multimedia Database Systems,” ACM Multimedia Systems, vol. 3, nos. 5 and 6, Nov. 1995.
[10] S. Ghandeharizadeh, A. Dashti, and C. Shahabi, “A Pipelining Mechanism to Minimize the Latency Time in Hierarchical Multimedia Storage Managers,” Computer Comm., vol. 18, no. 3, Mar. 1995.
[11] S. Ghandeharizadeh, S.H. Kim, and C. Shahabi, “On Disk Scheduling and Data Placement for Video Servers,” technical report, Univ. of Southern Calif., 1996.
[12] S. Ghandeharizadeh and S.H. Kim, “Striping in Multi-disk Video Servers,” Proc. SPIE '95 Conf., pp. 88-102, Oct. 1995.
[13] S. Ghandeharizadeh, L. Ramos, Z. Asad, and W. Qureshi, “Object Placement in Parallel Hypermedia Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases, 1991.
[14] The Handbook of Multimedia Information Management, W. Grosky, R. Jainand, R. Mehrotra, eds., Prentice-Hall, 1997.
[15] R.G. Herrtwich, “Time Capsules: An Abstraction for Access to Continuous Meda Data,” Proc. 11th Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 11-20, Dec. 1990.
[16] N. Hirzalla, B. Falchuk, and A. Karmouch, "A Temporal Model for Interactive Multimedia Scenarios," IEEE MultiMedia, vol. 2, no. 3, Fall 1995, pp. 24-31.
[17] T. Little and A. Ghafoor, "Network Considerations for Distributed Multimedia Object Composition and Communication," IEEE Network, vol. 4, no. 6, Nov . 1990, pp. 32-49.
[18] T.D.C. Little and A. Ghafoor, “Interval-Based Conceptual Models for Time-Dependent Multimedia Data,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 551-563, Aug. 1993.
[19] K. Nwosu, B. Thuraisingham, and P. B. Berra, “Multimedia Database Systems-A New Frontier,” IEEE Multimedia, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 21-23, July/Sept. 1997.
[20] G. Ozsoyoglu, V. Hakkoymaz, and J. Kraft, “Automating the Assembly of Presentations from Multimedia Databases,” Proc. IEEE 12th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., 1996.
[21] D.A. Patterson, G. Gibson, and R.H. Katz, “A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID),” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 109–116, 1988.
[22] S. Ramanathan and P.V. Rangan, “Feedback Techniques for Intra-Media Continuity and Inter-Media Synchronization in Distributed Multimedia Systems,” Computer J., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 19-31, 1993.
[23] C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes, "An Introduction to Disk Drive Modeling," Computer, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 17-28, Mar. 1994.
[24] C. Shahabi and S. Ghandeharizadeh, “Continuous Display of Presentations Sharing Clips,” ACM Multimedia Systems, vol. 3, no. 2, May 1995.
[25] C. Shahabi and S. Ghandeharizadeh, S. Chaudhuri, “On Sscheduling Atomic and Composite Multimedia Objects,” Technical Report USC-CS-95-622, Univ. of Southern Calif., 1995.
[26] R. Steinmetz,"Synchronization Properties in Multimedia Systems," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 8, no. 3, Apr. 1990, pp. 401-412.
[27] F.A. Tobagi, J. Pang, R. Baird, and M. Gang, “Streaming RAID—A Disk Array Management System For Video Files,” Proc. ACM Multimedia Conf., pp. 393–399, 1993.
[28] M. Vazirgiannis and C. Mourlas, “An Object-Oriented Model for Interactive Multimedia Presentations,” Computer J., vol. 36, no. 1, 1993.
[29] P. Yu, M. Chen, and D. Kandlur, "Design and Analysis of a Grouped Sweeping Scheme for Multimedia Storage Management," Proc. 3rd Ann. Workshop Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992, pp. 44-55.

Index Terms:
composite objects, continuous media retrieval, multimedia, real-time scheduling, storage servers, temporal relationships
Citation:
C. Shahabi, S. Ghandeharizadeh, S. Chaudhuri, "On Scheduling Atomic and Composite Continuous Media Objects," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 447-455, March-April 2002, doi:10.1109/69.991729
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.