This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Segmented Information Dispersal (SID) Data Layouts for Digital Video Servers
July/August 2001 (vol. 13 no. 4)
pp. 593-606

Abstract—We present a novel data organization for disk arrays—Segmented Information Dispersal (SID). SID provides protection against disk failures while ensuring that the reconstruction of the missing data requires only relatively small contiguous accesses to the available disks. SID has a number of properties that make it an attractive solution for fault-tolerant video servers. Under fault-free conditions, SID performs as well as RAID 5 and organizations based on balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD). Under failure, SID performs much better than RAID 5 since it significantly reduces the size of the disk accesses performed by the reconstruction process. SID also performs much better than BIBD by ensuring the contiguity of the reconstruction accesses. Contiguity is a very significant factor for video retrieval workloads, as we demonstrate in this paper. We present SID data organizations with a concise representation which enables the reconstruction process to efficiently locate the needed video and check data.

[1] G. Alvarez, W. Burkhard, and F. Cristian, “Tolerating Multiple-Failures in RAID Architecture with Optimal Storage and Uniform Declustering,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture (ISCA-97), 1997.
[2] G.A. Alvarez, W.A. Burkhard, L.J. Stockmeyer, and F. Cristian, “Declustered Disk Array Architectures with Optimal and Near-Optimal Parallelism,” Proc. 25th Ann. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, pp. 109-120, 1998.
[3] S. Berson, L. Golubchik, and R.R. Muntz, “Fault-Tolerant Design of Multimedia Servers,” Proc. SIGMOD '95, pp. 364–375, May 1995.
[4] S. Berson, S. Ghandeharizadeh, R.R. Muntz, and X. Ju, “Staggered Striping in Multimedia Information Systems,” Proc. SIGMOD, 1994.
[5] J.R. Bitner and C.K. Wong, “Optimal and Near-Optimal Scheduling Algorithms for Batched Processing in Linear Storage,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 8, pp. 479-498, 1979.
[6] P.M. Chen and D.A. Patterson, "Maximizing Performance in a Striped Disk Array," Proc. 17th Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture,Seattle, pp. 322-331, May 1990.
[7] A. Cohen and W. Burkhard, “Segmented Information Dispersal (SID) for Efficient Reconstruction in Fault-Tolerant Video Servers,” Proc. ACM Multimedia 1996, pp. 277–286, Nov. 1996.
[8] A. Cohen and W.A. Burkhard, “Segmented Information Dispersal—A New Design with Application to Erasure Correction,” 1997, also .
[9] A. Cohen, “Segmented Information Dispersal,” PhD dissertation, Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Univ. of Calif., San Diego, 1996.
[10] A. Cohen, W.A. Burkhard, and P.V. Rangan, “Pipelined Disk Arrays for Digital Movie Retrieval,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 312-317, 1995.
[11] S. Furino, Y. Maio, and J. Yin, Frames and Resolvable Designs: Uses, Constructions and Existence. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1996.
[12] J. Gray, B. Horst, and M. Walker, "Parity Striping of Disk Arrays: Low Cost Reliable Storage with Acceptable Throughput," Proc. 16th Int'l VLDB Conf., p. 152, 1990.
[13] B. Haskell, A. Puri, and A. Netravaldi, Digital Video: An Introduction to MPEG2, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1996.
[14] M. Holland and G.A. Gibson, "Parity Declustering for Continuous Operation in Redundant Disk Arrays," Proc. Fifth Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, pp. 23-35,Boston, Oct. 1992.
[15] M. Krunz and H. Hughes, “A Traffic Model for MPEG-Coded VBR Streams,” Proc. Joint Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, pp. 47-55, 1995.
[16] D. Le Gall, “MPEG: A Video Compression Standard for Multimedia Applications,” Comm. ACM, Apr. 1991.
[17] R.R. Muntz and J.C.S. Lui, "Performance Analysis of Disk Arrays Under Failure," Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 162-173,Brisbane, Australia, Aug. 1990.
[18] S.W. Ng and R.L. Mattson, “Maintaining Good Performance in Disk Arrays during Failure via Uniform Parity Group Distribution,” Proc. First Int'l Symp. High-Performance Distributed Computing, pp. 260-269, 1992.
[19] B. Ozden, R. Rastogi, and A. Silberschatz, “Disk Striping in Video Server Environments,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Multimedia Systems, pp. 580–589, June 1996.
[20] B. Ozden, R. Rastogi, P.J. Shenoy, and A. Silberschatz, “Fault-Tolerant Architectures for Continuous Media Servers,” Proc. SIGMOD '96 Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 79–90, June 1996.
[21] D.A. Patterson, G. Gibson, and R.H. Katz, “A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID),” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 109–116, 1988.
[22] A. L. Narasimha Reddy, J. Chandy, and P. Banerjee, "Design and Evaluation of Gracefully Degradable Disk Arrays," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 17, no. 1/2, pp. 28-40, Jan./Feb. 1993.
[23] C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes, "An Introduction to Disk Drive Modeling," Computer, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 17-28, Mar. 1994.
[24] E.J. Schwabe and I.M. Sutherland, “Improved Parity-Declustered Layouts for Disk Arrays,” Proc. Sixth Ann. ACM Symp. Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, pp. 76-84, 1994.
[25] T.J.E. Schwarz, J. Steinberg, and W.A. Burkhard, “Permutation Development Data Layout (PDDL) Disk Array Declustering,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Symp. High-Performance Computer Architecture, pp. 214-217, 1999.
[26] F.A. Tobagi, J. Pang, R. Baird, and M. Gang, “Streaming RAID—A Disk Array Management System For Video Files,” Proc. ACM Multimedia Conf., pp. 393–399, 1993.
[27] P. Triantafillou and C. Faloutsos, “Overlay Striping and Optimal Parallel I/O in Modern Applications,” Reportshtm,#TR8. 1997.
[28] H.M. Vin, P.J. Shenoy, and S. Rao, “Efficient Failure Recovery in Multidisk Multimedia Servers,” Proc. 25th Int'l Symp. Fault-Tolerant Computing, pp. 12-21, 1995.

Index Terms:
Algorithms, data structures, declustering, disk arrays, separated difference sets, video servers.
Ariel Cohen, Walter A. Burkhard, "Segmented Information Dispersal (SID) Data Layouts for Digital Video Servers," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 593-606, July-Aug. 2001, doi:10.1109/69.940734
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.