This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Locating Objects in Mobile Computing
July/August 2001 (vol. 13 no. 4)
pp. 571-592

Abstract—In current distributed systems, the notion of mobility is emerging in many forms and applications. Mobility arises naturally in wireless computing since the location of users changes as they move. Besides mobility in wireless computing, software mobile agents are another popular form of moving objects. Locating objects, i.e., identifying their current location, is central to mobile computing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the various approaches to the problem of storing, querying, and updating the location of objects in mobile computing. The fundamental techniques underlying the proposed approaches are identified, analyzed, and classified along various dimensions.

[1] Comm. ACM, special issue on Intelligent Agents, vol. 37, no. 7, 1994.
[2] IEEE Internet Computing, special issue on Internet-Based Agents, vol. 1, no. 4, 1997.
[3] A. Abutaleb and V.O.K. Li, “Location Update Optimization in Personal Communication Systems,” ACM/Baltzer Wireless Networks J., vol. 3, pp. 205–216, 1997.
[4] I.F. Akyildiz and J.S.M. Ho, “Dynamic Mobile User Location Update for Wireless PCS Networks,” ACM-Baltzer J. Wireless Neworks, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 187-196, 1995.
[5] V. Anantharam, M.L. Honig, U. Madhow, and V.K. Kei, “Optimization of a Database Hierarchy for Mobility Tracking in a Personal Communications Network,” Performance Evaluation, vol. 20, pp. 287–300, 1994.
[6] B. Awerbuch and D. Peleg, "Online Tracking of Mobile Users," J. ACM, vol. 42, no. 5, 1995, pp. 1021-1058.
[7] B.R. Badrinath, T. Imielinski, and A. Virmani, “Locating Strategies for Personal Communications Networks,” Proc. 1992 Int'l Conf. Networks for Personal Comm., 1992.
[8] M. Baentsch, L. Baum, G. Molter, S. Rothkugel, and P. Sturm, “Enhancing the Web's Infrastructure: From Caching to Replication,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 18-27, Mar.-Apr. 1997.
[9] N.A. Bar and I. Kessler, “Tracking Mobile Users in Wireless Communications Networks,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 39, pp. 1877-1886, 1993.
[10] A. Bar-Nor, I. Kessler, and M. Sidi, “Mobile Users: To Update or Not to Update,” ACM-Baltzer Wireless Networks, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 187-196, 1994.
[11] P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[12] G. Cho and L.F. Marshall, “An Efficient Location and Routing Scheme for Mobile Computing Environments,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 868-879, June 1995.
[13] S. Cluet, O. Kapitskaia, and D. Srivastava, “Using LDAP Directory Caches,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Database Systems, 1999.
[14] S.E. Czerwinski et al., "An Architecture for a Secure Service Discovery Service," Proc. 5th Ann. ACM/IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networks (MobiCom 99), ACM Press, New York, 1999, pp. 24-35.
[15] L.W. Dowdy and D.V. Foster, "Comparative Models of the File Assignment Problem," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 14, no. 2, 1982.
[16] M. Erwig, R.H. Goting, M. Schneider, and M. Vazirgiannis, “Spatio-Temporal Data Types: An Approach to Modeling and Querying Moving Objects in Databases,” GeoInformatica, vol. 3, no. 3, 1999.
[17] G.H. Forman and J. Zahorjan, “The Challenges of Mobile Computing,” Computer, pp. 38-47, Apr. 1994.
[18] “GPS—Introduction to GPS Applications,” www.redsword.com/gps/appsindex.htm.
[19] “GPS—USCG Navigation Center GPS Page,” www.navcen.uscg.milgps/.
[20] E. Guttman, C. Perkins, J. Veizades, and M. Day, “Service Location Protocol, Version 2,” IETF, RFC 2608, June 1999, ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notesrfc2608.txt.
[21] H. Harjono, R. Jain, and S. Mohan, “Analysis and Simulation of a Cache-Based Auxiliary User Location Strategy for PCS,” Proc. 1994 Int'l Conf. Networks for Personal Comm., Mar. 1994.
[22] J.S.M. Ho and I.F. Akyildiz, “Mobile User Location Update and Paging under Delay Constraints,” ACM-Baltzer Wireless Networks, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 413-425, 1995.
[23] J.S.M. Ho and I.F. Akyildiz, “Local Anchor Scheme for Reducing Signaling Cost in Personal Communication Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, Oct. 1996.
[24] J.S.M. Ho and I.F. Akyildiz, “Dynamic Hierarchical Database Architecture for Location Management in PCS Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, no. 5, 1997.
[25] T. Imielinski and B.R. Badrinath, “Querying in Highly Mobile and Distributed Environment,” Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Vary Large Data Bases, pp. 41-52, Aug. 1992.
[26] T. Imielinski and B.R. Badrinath, “Wireless Computing: Challenges in Data Management,” Comm. ACM, vol. 37, no. 10, Oct. 1994.
[27] T. Imielinski and J.C. Navas, “GPS-Based Geographic Addressing, Routing, and Resource Discovery,” Comm. ACM, vol. 42, no. 4, 1999.
[28] “IP Routing for Wireless/Mobile Hosts Working Group,” RFC Documents,http://www.ietf.org/html.chartersmobileip-charter.html .
[29] H.V. Jagadish, L.V.S. Lakshmanan, T. Milo, D. Srivastava, and D Vista, “Querying Network Directories,” Proc. SIGMOD Conf., 1999.
[30] R. Jain, “Reducing Traffic Impacts of PCS Using Hierarchical User Location Databases,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., 1996.
[31] R. Jain and Y.B. Lin, “An Auxiliary User Location Strategy Employing Forwarding Pointers to Reduce Network Impacts of PCS,” Wireless Networks 1, pp. 197-210, 1995.
[32] R. Jain, Y.B. Lin, C. Lo, and S. Mohan, “A Caching Strategy to Reduce Network Impacts of PCS,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 12, no. 8, Oct. 1994.
[33] J. Jannink, D. Lam, N. Shivakumar, J. Widom, and D. Cox, “Efficient amd Flexible Location Management Techniques for Wireless Communication Systems,” ACM J. Wireless Networks, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 361-374, 1997.
[34] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, "Protocols for Adaptive Wireless and Mobile Networking," IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 3, no. 1, Feb. 1996.
[35] E. Jul, H. Levy, N. Hutchinson, and A. Black, “Fine-Grained Mobility in the Emerald System,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 109–133, Feb. 1988.
[36] G. Kollios, D. Gunopulos, and V.J. Tsotras, “On Indexing Mobile Objects,” Proc. 18th ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symp. Principles of Database Systems, 1999.
[37] P. Krishna, N.H. Vaidya, and D.K. Pradhan, “Static and Dynamic Location Management in Mobile Wireless Networks,” J. Computer Comm., special issue on Mobile Computing, vol. 19, no. 4, Mar. 1996.
[38] Y. Lin, "Determining the User Locations for Personal Communications Services Networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 43, no. 3, 1994, pp. 466-473.
[39] Y.B. Lin, “Failure Restoration of Mobility Databases for Personal Comm. Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 365–372, 1995.
[40] Y.-B. Lin and S.K. DeVries, "PCS Network Signaling Using SS7," IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 3, June 1995, pp. 44-55.
[41] U. Madhow, M.L. Honig, and K. Steiglitz, “Optimization of Wireless Resources for Personal Communications Mobility Tracking,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 698-707, Dec. 1995.
[42] Y. Manolopoulos, Y. Theodoridis, and V. Tsotras, Advanced Database Indexing. Kluwer Academic, 1999.
[43] S. Mohan and R. Jain, “Two User Location Strategies for Personal Communications Services,” IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 42-50, 1994.
[44] B.C. Neuman, S.S. Augart, and S. Upasani, “Using Prospero to Support Integrated Location-Independent Computing,” Proc. USENIX Symp. Mobile&Location-Independent Computing, pp. 29–34, Aug. 1993.
[45] A.P. Sistla, O. Wolfson, S. Chamberlain, and Y. Yesha, “Updating and Querying Databases that Track Mobile Units,” Distributed and Parallel Databases, vol. 7, no. 3, 1999.
[46] T.M. Ozsu and P. Valduriez, Principles of Distributed Database Systems. Prentice Hall, 1991.
[47] C.E. Perkins, Mobile IP: Design Principles and Practices. Addison Wesley, 1998.
[48] D. Pfoser, Y. Theodoridis, and C.S. Jensen, “Indexing Trajectories of Moving Point Objects,” Chorochronos Technical Report, CH-99-3, Oct. 1999.
[49] E. Pitoura and I. Fudos, “An Efficient Hierarchical Scheme for Locating Highly Mobile Users,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '98), pp. 218–225, Nov. 1998.
[50] E. Pitoura and G. Samaras, Data Management for Mobile Computing. Kluwer Academic, 1997.
[51] S. Rajagopalan and B.R. Badrinath, “An Adaptive Location Management Strategy for Mobile IP,” Proc. First Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 170-180, 1995.
[52] C. Rose, “Minimizing the Average Cost of Paging and Registration: A Time-Based Method,” Wireless Networks, vol. 2, pp. 109-116, 1996.
[53] C. Rose and R. Yates, “Minimizing the Average Cost of Paging under Delay Constraints,” ACM-Baltzer Wireless Networks, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 211-219, 1995.
[54] C. Rose and R. Yates, “Location Uncertainty in Mobile Networks: A Theoretical Framework,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 35, no. 2, 1997.
[55] M. Shapiro, P. Dickman, and D. Plainfosse, “SSP Chains: Robust, Distributed References Supporting Acyclic Garbage Collection,” Technical Report 1799, INRIA, Rocquentcourt, France, Nov. 1992.
[56] N. Shivakumar and J. Jannink, J. Widom, “Per-User Profile Replication in Mobile Environments: Algorithms, Analysis and Simulation Results,” ACM J. Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 129-140, 1997.
[57] N. Shivakumar and J. Widom, “User Profile Replication for Faster Location Lookup in Mobile Environments,” Proc. First ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom '95), pp. 161–169, Oct. 1995.
[58] A.P. Sistla, O. Wolfson, S. Chamberlain, and S. Dao, “Modeling and Querying Moving Objects,” Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE '97), 1997.
[59] Stanford Pleiades Research Group, Stanford Univ. Mobile Activity TRAces (SUMATRA),www-db.stanford.edusumatra.
[60] J. Tayeb, O. Wolfson, and O. Ulusoy., “A Quadtree-Based Dynamic Attribute Indexing Method,” The Computer J., vol. 41, no. 3, 1998.
[61] F. Teraoka, Y. Yokote, and M. Tokoro, "A Network Architecture Providing Host Migration Transparency," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Symp. Comm. Architecture and Protocols,Zurich, 1991.
[62] Y. Theodoridis, T. Sellis, A.N. Papadopoulos, and Y. Manolopoulos, Specifications for Efficient Indexing in Spatiotemporal Databases Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Scientific and Statistical Database Management, 1999.
[63] M. van Steen, F.J. Hauck, G. Ballintijin, and A.S. Tanenbaum, “Algorithmic Design of the Globe Wide-Area Location Service,” The Computer J., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 297–310, 1998.
[64] F.J. Van Steen, H.P. Homburg, and A.S. Tanenbaum, “Locating Objects in Wide-Area Systems,” IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 104-109, Jan. 1998.
[65] M. Veeraraghavan and G. Dommety, “Mobile Location Management in ATM Networks,” IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 8, 1997.
[66] Mobile Object Systems: Towards the Programmable Internet, J. Vitek and C. Tschudin, eds. Springer Verlag, 1997.
[67] J.Z. Wang, “A Fully Distributed Location Registration Strategy for Universal Personal Communication Systems,” IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 850–860, Aug. 1993.
[68] M. Weiser, “Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing,” Comm. ACM, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 75-84, July 1993.
[69] O. Wolfson, S. Chamberlain, S. Dao, L. Jiang, and G. Mendez, “Cost and Imprecision in Modeling the Position of Moving Objects,” Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 588-596, Feb. 1998.
[70] O. Wolfson, S. Jajodia, and Y. Huang, “An Adaptive Data Replication Algorithm,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 255-314, June 1997.
[71] O. Wolfson et al., "Moving Objects Databases: Issues and Solutions," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Scientific and Statistical Database Management (SSDBM98), 1998, pp. 111–122.
[72] H. Xie, S. Tabbane, and D. Goodman, “Dynamic Location Area Management and Performance Analysis,” Proc. 43rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., pp. 533-539, May 1993.
[73] A. Yener and C. Rose, “Highly Mobile Users and Paging: Optimal Polling Strategies,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1251-1257, Nov. 1998.

Index Terms:
Mobile computing, location management, location databases, caching, replication, moving objects, spatio-temporal databases.
Citation:
Evaggelia Pitoura, George Samaras, "Locating Objects in Mobile Computing," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 571-592, July-Aug. 2001, doi:10.1109/69.940733
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.