This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Trigger Inheritance and Overriding in an Active Object Database System
July/August 2000 (vol. 12 no. 4)
pp. 588-608

Abstract—An active database is a database in which some operations are automatically executed when specified events happen and particular conditions are met. Several systems supporting active rules in an object-oriented data model have been proposed. However, several issues related to the integration of triggers with object-oriented modeling concepts have not been satisfactorily addressed. In this paper, we discuss issues related to trigger inheritance and refinement in the context of the Chimera active object-oriented data model. In particular, we introduce a semantics for an active object language that takes into account trigger inheritance and supports trigger overriding. Moreover, we state conditions on trigger overriding ensuring that trigger semantics is preserved in subclasses.

[1] J. Widom, S. Ceri, and U. Dayal, Active Database Systems: Triggers and Rules for Advanced Database Processing. Morgan Kaufmann, 1996.
[2] C. Beeri and T. Milo, “A Model for Active Object Oriented Database,” Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, G.M. Lohman, A. Sernadas, and R. Camps, eds., pp. 337–349, 1991.
[3] N. Gehani and H. Jagadish,"Ode as an active database: Constraints and triggers," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, Sept. 1991.
[4] G. Kappel, S. Rausch-Schott, and W. Retschitzegger, “Beyond Coupling Modes: Implementing Active Concepts on Top of a Commercial DBMS,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Object-Oriented Methodologies and Systems, E. Bertino and S. Urban, eds., 1994.
[5] G. Leavens and W. Weihl, “Reasoning about Object-Oriented Programs that Use Subtypes,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Object-Oriented Programming: Systems, Languages, and Applications, Joint with Fourth European Conf. Object-Oriented Programming, pp. 212–223, 1990.
[6] S. Ceri and R. Manthey, “Chimera: A Model and Language for Active DOOD Systems, Extending Information System Technology,” Proc. Second Int'l East/West Database Workshop, J. Eder and L. Kalinichenko, eds., pp. 9–21, 1994.
[7] G. Guerrini, E. Bertino, and R. Bal, “A Formal Definition of the Chimera Object-Oriented Data Model,” J. Intelligent Information Systems, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 5–40, 1998.
[8] S. Ceri and P. Fraternali, Designing Database Applications with Objects and Rules—The IDEA Methodology. Addison-Wesley, 1997.
[9] N. Mattos, “An Overview of the SQL3 Standard,” Database Technology Inst., IBM Santa Teresa Lab., San Jose, Calif., July 1996.
[10] U. Dayal, A. Buchmann, and S. Chakravarthy, “The HiPAC Project,” Active Database Systems, S. Ceri and J. Widom, eds., Morgan-Kaufmann, 1996.
[11] D.R. McCarthy and U. Dayal,"The architecture of an active data base management system," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 215-224, June 1989.
[12] E. Anwar, L. Maugis, and S. Chakravarthy, “A New Perspective on Rule Support for Object-Oriented Databases,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, P. Buneman and S. Jajodia, eds., pp. 99–108, 1993.
[13] H. Branding, A. Buchmann, T. Kudrass, and J. Zimmerman, “Rules in an Open System: the REACH Rule System,” Proc. First Int'l Workshop Rules in Database Systems, N. Paton and M. Williams, eds., pp. 111–126, 1993.
[14] N. Gehani and H. Jagadish, “Active Database Facilities in Ode,” Active Database Systems, S. Ceri and J. Widom, eds., Morgan-Kaufmann, 1996.
[15] O. Diaz,N. Paton,, and P. Gray,“Rule management in object-oriented databases: A unified approach,” Proc. 17th Int’l Conf. Very Large Data Bases,Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 1991.
[16] C. Collet, T. Coupaye, and T. Svensen, “Naos: Efficient and Modular Reactive Capabilities in an Object-Oriented Database System,” Proc. 12th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 132–143, 1994.
[17] S. Gatziu and K. Dittrich, “SAMOS: An Active Object-Oriented Database System,” IEEE Data Eng. Bulletin, Special Issue on Active Databases, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 23–26, Dec. 1992.
[18] S. Ceri, P. Fraternali, S. Paraboschi, and L. Tanca, “Active Rule Management in Chimera,” Active Database Systems, S. Ceri and J. Widom, eds., Morgan-Kaufmann, 1996.
[19] R. Meo, G. Psaila, and S. Ceri, “Composite Events in Chimera,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Extending Database Technology, P. Apers, ed., pp. 56–76, 1996.
[20] C. Medeiros and P. Pfeffer, “Object Integrity Using Rules,” Proc. Fifth European Conference Object-Oriented Programming, P. America, ed., pp. 219–230, 1991.
[21] J. Widom and S.J. Finkelstein,"Set-oriented production rules in relational database systems," Proc. 1990 ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 259-270, 1990.
[22] S. Ceri, G. Gottlob, and L. Tanca, "Logic Programming and Databases," Surveys in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, 1990.
[23] S. Abiteboul, R. Hull, and V. Vianu, Foundations of Databases. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[24] J. Widom,R.J. Cochrane, and B.G. Lindsay,"Implementing set-oriented production rules as an extension to Starburst," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 1991.
[25] J.H. Gallier, Logic for Computer Science. Harper and Row, 1986.
[26] E. Bertino, G. Guerrini, and I. Merlo, “A Set-Oriented Method Definition Language for Object Databases,” technical report DISI-TR-97-11, submitted for publication Dipartimento di Informatica e Scienze dell'Informazione, Universitàdi Ge nova, 1997.
[27] D. Lieuwen, N. Gehani, and R. Arlein, “The Ode Active Database: Trigger Semantics and Implementation,” Proc. 12th IEEE Int'l Conf. Data Eng., 1996.
[28] E. Bertino, G. Guerrini, and I. Merlo, “Trigger Inheritance and Overriding in an Active Object Database System,” technical report DISI-TR-97-4, Dipartimento di Informatica e Scienze dell'Informazione, Universitàdi Ge nova, 1997.
[29] M. Buchheit, M. Jeusfeld, W. Nutt, and M. Staudt, “Subsumption Between Queries to Object-Oriented Databases,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Extending Database Technology, M. Jarke, J. Bubenko, and K. Jeffery, eds., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 1994. Extended version in Information Systems. vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33–54, 1994.
[30] E. Chan, “Containment and Minimization of Positive Conjunctive Queries in OODBs,” Proc. 11th ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 202–211, 1992.
[31] E. Bertino, R. Ferrari, and G. Guerrini, “Containment Among Chimera Positive Conjunctive Queries,” Technical report, 1997.
[32] D. Chamberlin, Using the New DB2—IBM's Object-Relational Database System. Morgan-Kaufmann, 1996.
[33] Oracle Corporation, Oracle8 Server SQL Reference, Release 8.0, 1997.
[34] N. Paton, J. Campin, A.A.A. Fernandes, and M.H. Williams, “Formal Specification of Active Database Functionality: A Survey,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Rules in Database Systems, RIDS, T. Sellis, ed., pp. 21–35, 1995.
[35] J. Widom, “A Denotational Semantics for the Starbust Production Rule Language,” SIGMOD Record, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 4–9, Sept. 1992.
[36] J. Campin, N. Paton, and H. Williams, “Specifying Active Databases Systems in an Object-Oriented Framework,” Software Eng. and Knowledge Eng., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 101–123, 1997.
[37] G.A. Rose, “Object-Z,” Object Orientation in Z, S. Stepheney, R. Barden, and D. Cooper, eds., pp. 59–77, Springer-Verlag, 1992.
[38] R. Kowalsky, “Database Updates in Event Calculus,” J. Logic Programming, vol. 12, pp. 121–146, 1992.
[39] C. Zaniolo, “A Unified Semantics for Active and Deductive Databases,” Rules in Database Systems, N.W. Paton and M.H. Williams, eds., Springer-Verlag, 1994.
[40] A. Fernandes, H. Williams, and N. Paton, “A Logic-Based Integration of Active and Deductive Databases,” New Generation Computing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 205–244, 1997.
[41] Y. Zhou and M. Hsu, “A Theory of Rule Triggering Systems,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Extending Database Technology, pp. 407–421, 1990.
[42] P. Fraternali and L. Tanca, “A Structured Approach for the Definition of the Semantics of the Active Databases,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, 1995.
[43] Y. Shyy and S. Su, “Refinement Preservation for Rule Selection in Active Object-Oriented Database Systems,” Proc. Fourth Int'l IEEE Workshop Research Issues in Data Engineering—Active Database Systems, J. Widom and S. Chakravarthy, eds., pp. 115–123, 1994.
[44] N.A. Chaudhry, J.R. Moyne, and E.A. Rundensteiner, “A Formal Model for Rule Inheritance and Overriding in Active Object-Oriented Databases,” Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Integrated Design and Process Technology, M. T. Ozsu and A. Dogac and O. Ulusoy, eds., vol. 2, pp. 128–135, 1998.
[45] G. Guerrini and D. Montesi, “Design and Implementation of Chimera Active Rule Language,” Data and Knowledge Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 39–67, 1997.
[46] E. Bertino and G. Guerrini, “Objects with Multiple Most Specific Classes,” Proc. Ninth European Conf. Object-Oriented Programming, W. Olthoff, ed., pp. 102–126, 1995.

Index Terms:
Triggers, object-oriented data models, inheritance and refinement.
Citation:
Elisa Bertino, Giovanna Guerrini, Isabella Merlo, "Trigger Inheritance and Overriding in an Active Object Database System," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 588-608, July-Aug. 2000, doi:10.1109/69.868909
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.