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Vittorio Maniezzo, Alberto Colorni, "The Ant System Applied to the Quadratic Assignment Problem," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 769778, September/October, 1999.  
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@article{ 10.1109/69.806935, author = {Vittorio Maniezzo and Alberto Colorni}, title = {The Ant System Applied to the Quadratic Assignment Problem}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, issn = {10414347}, year = {1999}, pages = {769778}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/69.806935}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
RefWorks Procite/RefMan/Endnote  x  
TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering TI  The Ant System Applied to the Quadratic Assignment Problem IS  5 SN  10414347 SP769 EP778 EPD  769778 A1  Vittorio Maniezzo, A1  Alberto Colorni, PY  1999 KW  Heuristic algorithms KW  distributed algorithms KW  ant system KW  evolutionary computation KW  quadratic assignment problem KW  combinatorial optimization KW  knowledge pooling. VL  11 JA  IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering ER   
Abstract—In recent years, there has been growing interest in algorithms inspired by the observation of natural phenomena to define computational procedures that can solve complex problems. In this article, we describe a distributed heuristic algorithm that was inspired by the observation of the behavior of ant colonies, and we propose its use for the Quadratic Assignment Problem. The results obtained in solving several classical instances of the problem are compared with those obtained from other evolutionary heuristics to evaluate the quality of the proposed system.
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