This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
OSAM*.KBMS/P: A Parallel, Active, Object-Oriented Knowledge Base Server
January/February 1998 (vol. 10 no. 1)
pp. 55-75

Abstract—An active object-oriented knowledge base server can provide many desirable features for supporting a wide spectrum of advanced and complex database applications. Knowledge rules, which are used to define a variety of database tasks to be performed automatically on the occurrence of some events, often need much more sophisticated rule-specification and control mechanisms than the traditional priority-based mechanism to specify the control structural relationships and parallel execution properties among rules. The underlying object-oriented (OO) knowledge representation model must provide a means to model the structural relationships among data entities and the control structures among rules in a uniform fashion. The transaction execution model must provide a means to incorporate the execution of structured rules in a transaction framework. Also, a parallel implementation of an active knowledge base server is essential to achieve the needed efficiency in processing nested transactions and rules. In this paper, we present the architecture, implementation, and performance of a parallel active OO knowledge base server, which has the following features. First, the server is developed based on an extended OO knowledge representation model that models rules as objects and their control structural relationships as association types. This is analogous to the modeling of entities as objects and their structural relationships as association types. Thus, entities and rules, and their structures, can be uniformly modeled. Second, the server uses a graph-based transaction model that can naturally incorporate the control semantics of structured rules and guarantee the serializable execution of rules as subtransactions. Thus, the rule-execution model is uniformly integrated with that of transactions. Third, it uses an asynchronous parallel execution model to process the graph-based transactions and structured rules. This server, named OSAM*.KBMS/P, has been implemented on a shared-nothing multiprocessor system (nCUBE2) to verify and evaluate the proposed knowledge-representation model, graph-based transaction model, and asynchronous parallel-execution model.

[1] C. Beeri, "Formal Models for Object Oriented Database Systems," First Int'l Conf. Deductive and Object Oriented Databases, W. Kim, J-M. Nicolas, and S. Nishio, eds., pp. 370-395, 1989.
[2] D. DeWitt and J. Gray, “Parallel Database Systems: The Future of High-Performance Database Systems,” Comm. ACM, Vol. 35, No. 6, June 1992, pp. 85-98.
[3] E.N. Hanson and J. Widom,"Rule processing in active database systems," Int'l J. Expert Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 83-119, 1993.
[4] P. Valduriez, "Parallel Database Systems: Open Problems and New Issues," Distributed and Parallel Databases, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 137-165, 1993.
[5] K.P. Eswaran, "Specifications, Implementations, and Interactions of a Trigger Subsystem in an Integrated Database System," Technical Report, IBM Research Lab, San Jose, Calif., 1976.
[6] M. Morgenstern, "Active Databases as a Paradigm for Enhanced Computing Environments," Proc. 9th VLDB Conf., pp.34-42,Florence, Italy, Oct. 1983.
[7] D.R. McCarthy and U. Dayal, "The Architecture of an Active, Object-Oriented Database System," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management Data,Portland, Ore., pp. 142-151, June 1989.
[8] J. Banerjee,H.T. Chou,J.F. Garza,W. Kim,D. Woelk, and H.J. Kim,"Data model issues for object-oriented application," ACM Trans. Office Information Systems, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3-26, 1987.
[9] S.Y.W. Su, V. Krishnamurthy, and H. Lam, "An Object-Oriented Semantic Association Model (OSAM*)," Artificial Intelligence: Manufacturing Theory and Practice, S. Kumara, A.L. Soyster, and R.L. Kashyap, eds., pp. 463-494. Inst. of Industrial Engineers, Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Norcross, Ga., 1989.
[10] U. Dayal,B. Blaustein,A. Buchmann et al., , "The HiPAC project: Combining active databases and timing constraints," SIGMOD Record, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51-70, Mar. 1988.
[11] M. Stonebraker, E. Hanson, and S. Potamianos, “The POSTGRES Rule Manager,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., pp. 897-907, 1988.
[12] R. Agrawal, R. Cochrane, and B.G. Lindsay, “On Maintaining Priorities in a Production Rule System,” Proc. VLDB Conf., pp. 479-487, 1991.
[13] S. Ceri and J. Widom,“Production rules in parallel and distributed database environments,” Proc. VLDB’92, 1992.
[14] E.N. Hanson, "An Initial Report on the Design of Ariel: A DBMS with an Integrated Production Rule System," ACM SIGMOD Record, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 12-19, 1989.
[15] S. Chakravarthy, V. Krishnaprasad, E. Anwar, and S.-K. Kim, "Composite Events for Active Databases: Semantics, Contexts, and Detection," Proc. Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases, pp. 606-617, 1994.
[16] J. Gray and A. Reuter, Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques, Morgan Kauffman, 1993.
[17] E. Moss, "Nested Transactions: An Approach to Reliable Distributed Computing," PhD thesis, MIT, 1985.
[18] D.R. Zertuche and A.P. Buchmann, "Execution Models for Active Database Systems: A Comparison," Technical Report TM-0238-01-90-165, GTE Labs, Waltham, Mass., Jan. 1990.
[19] S.Y.W. Su, H. Lam, S. Eddula, J. Arroyo, N. Prasad, and R. Zhuang, "OSAM*.KBMS: An Object-Oriented Knowledge Base Management System for Supporting Advanced Applications," ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 540-541,Washington D.C., May 1993.
[20] M. Hsu, R. Ladin, and D. McCarthy, "An Execution Model for Active Database Management Systems," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Data and Knowledge Bases,Washington, D.C., pp. 171-179, June 1988.
[21] K.P. Eswaran, J.N. Gray, R.A. Lorie, and I.L. Traiger, "The Notions of Consistency and Predicate Locks in a Relational Database System," Comm. ACM, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 624-633, 1976.
[22] T.H. Cormen,C.E. Leiserson, and R.L. Rivest,Introduction to Algorithms.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press/McGraw-Hill, 1990.
[23] P.V. Cherukuri, "A Task Manager for Parallel Rule Execution in Multi-Processor Environments," MS thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Florida, 1993.
[24] Q. Li, "Design and Implementation of a Parallel Object-Oriented Query Processor for OSAM*.KBMS/P," MS thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Florida, 1993.
[25] R. Nartey, "The Design and Implementatation of a Global Transaction Server and a Lock Manager for a Parallel Knowledge Base Management System," MS thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Florida, 1994.
[26] R.S. Jawadi, "Graph-Based Rule and Transaction Execution in an Object-Oriented Knowledge Base Management System," PhD dissertation, Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences, Univ. of Florida, 1994.
[27] M. Stonebraker, "The Case for Shared Nothing," Database Eng., vol. 9, no. 1, 1986.
[28] nCUBE Corp., nCUBE 2 Programmer's Guide,Foster City, Calif., 1992.
[29] T.M. Ozsu and P. Valduriez, Principles of Distributed Database Systems. Prentice Hall, 1991.
[30] S.Y.W. Su, Y.-H. Chen, and H. Lam, “Multiple Wavefront Algorithms for Pattern-based Processing of Object-Oriented Databases,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Information Systems, pp. 46–55, Dec. 1991.
[31] A.K. Thakore, S.Y.W. Su, and H. Lam, “Algorithms for Asynchronous Parallel Processing of Object-Oriented Databases,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 487–504, Mar. 1995.
[32] M. Numao and S. Morishita, "Cooperative Scheduling and its Application to Steelmaking Processes," IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1991, pp. 150-155.
[33] E. Moss, "Log-Based Recovery for Nested Transactions," Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases,Brighton, England, pp. 427-432, Sept. 1987.
[34] K. Rothermal and C. Mohan, "ARIES/NT: A Recovery Method Based on Write Ahead Logging for Nested Transactions," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases,Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 337-346, Aug. 1989.
[35] C. Beeri and T. Milo, “A Model for Active Object Oriented Database,” Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, G.M. Lohman, A. Sernadas, and R. Camps, eds., pp. 337–349, 1991.
[36] O. Diaz,N. Paton,, and P. Gray,“Rule management in object-oriented databases: A unified approach,” Proc. 17th Int’l Conf. Very Large Data Bases,Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 1991.
[37] A. Buchmann, M. Ozsu, M. Hornick, D. Georgakopoulos, and F. Manola, "A Transaction Model for Active Distributed Object Systems," Advanced Transaction Models for New Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. Morgan-Kaufmann, 1992.
[38] J. Widom,R.J. Cochrane, and B.G. Lindsay,"Implementing set-oriented production rules as an extension to Starburst," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 1991.
[39] N. Gehani and H. Jagadish,"Ode as an active database: Constraints and triggers," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, Sept. 1991.
[40] S. Gatziu and K.R. Dittrich, "SAMOS: An Active, Object-Oriented Database System," IEEE Quarterly Bull. Data Eng., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 23-26, Dec. 1992.
[41] G. Kiernan,C. de Maindreville,, and E. Simon,“Making deductive database a practical technology: A step forward,” Proc. ACM-SIGMOD Int’l Conf. Management of Data, 1990.
[42] E. Simon, J. Kiernan, and C. de Maindreville, "Implementing High Level Active Rules on the Top of a Relational DBMS," Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases,Vancouver, Canada, pp. 315-326, 1992.
[43] L. Raschid, T. Sellis, and A. Delis, "A Simulation-Based Study on the Concurrent Execution of Rules in a Database Environment," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 20-42, Jan 1994.
[44] P. Chrysanthis and K. Ramammritham, "Acta: The SAGA Continues," Transaction Models for Advanced Database Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann, Feb. 1992.
[45] H. Wachter and A. Reuter, “The Contract Model,” Database Transaction Models for Advanced Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed., pp. 219–263, 1991.
[46] S. Heiler,S. Haradhvala,S. Zdonik,B. Blaustein,, and A. Rosenthal,“A flexible framework for transaction management in engineeringenvironments,” Database Transaction Models for Advanced Applications, A.K. Elmagarmid, ed., Morgan Kauffman, 1993.
[47] P. Attie, M. Singh, A. Sheth, and M. Rusinkiewicz, "Specifying and Enforcing Intertask Dependencies," Proc. 19th Int'l Conf. VLDB, Aug. 1993.
[48] J.G. Schmolze, "Guaranteeing Serializable Results in Synchronous Parallel Production Systems," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 348-365, Dec. 1991.
[49] T. Ishida,“Parallel rule firing in production systems,” IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 3, No. 1, pp 11-17, March 1991.
[50] S.J. Stolfo, O. Wolfson, P.K. Chan, H.M. Dewan, L. Woodbury, J.S. Glazier, and D.A. Ohsie, "PARULEL: Parallel Rule Processing Using Meta-Rules For Redaction," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 366-382, Dec. 1991.
[51] S. Kuo and D. Moldovan, "Implementation of Multiple Rule Firing Production Systems on Hypercube," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 383-394, Dec. 1991.
[52] N.H. Gehani, H.V. Jagadish, and O. Shmueli, "Event Specification in an Object-Oriented Database," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 81-90, 1992.
[53] N.H. Gehani et. al., “Composite event specification in active databases: Model and implementation,” Proc. 18th Int’l Conf. Very Large Databases, Aug. 1992.
[54] A.P. Buchmann, J. Zimmermann, J.A. Blakeley, and D.L. Wells, “Building an Integrated Active Oodbms: Requirements, Architecture, and Design Decisions,” Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Data Eng., 1995.
[55] S.Y.W. Su, Y. Huang, and N. Akaboshi, "Graph-Based Parallel Query Processing and Optimization in Object-Oriented Databases," Technical Report, Database Systems Research and Development Center, CIS Dept., Univ. of Florida, Jan. 1996; final technical report submitted to Fujitsu Ltd., Japan.

Index Terms:
Active databases, OO modeling, rule graphs, transaction graphs, parallel execution.
Stanley Y.W. Su, Ramamohanrao Jawadi, Prashant Cherukuri, Qiang Li, Richard Nartey, "OSAM*.KBMS/P: A Parallel, Active, Object-Oriented Knowledge Base Server," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 55-75, Jan.-Feb. 1998, doi:10.1109/69.667088
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.