This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Intelligent Critic System for Architectural Design
July-August 1997 (vol. 9 no. 4)
pp. 625-639

Abstract—This paper describes an intelligent computer-aided architectural design system (ICAAD) called ICADS. ICADS encapsulates different types of design knowledge into independent "critic" modules. Each "critic" module possesses expertise in evaluating an architect's work in different areas of architectural design and can offer expert advice when needed. This research focuses on the representation of spatial information encoded in architectural floor plans and the representation of expert design knowledge. Described in this paper is our research in designing and developing two particular "critic" modules. The first module, FPDX, checks a residential apartment floor plan, verifies that the plan meets a set of government regulations, and offers suggestions for floor plan changes if regulations are not met. The second module, IDX, analyzes room and furniture layout according to a set of interior design guidelines and offers ideas on how furniture should be moved if the placement does not follow good design principles.

[1] G. Adorni, A. Boccalatte, and M. Dimanzo, "Cognitive Models for Computer Vision," Proc. Ninth COLING, July 1982.
[2] J.F. Allen, “Maintaining Knowledge about Temporal Intervals,” Comm. ACM, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 832–843, 1983.
[3] J.F. Allen, "An Interval-Based Representation of Temporal Knowledge," Proc. IJCAI-81, pp. 221-226, 1981.
[4] O. Akin, "How Do Architects Design?" Artificial Intelligence and Pattern Recognition in Computer Aided Design, Latombe, ed., North-Holland, pp. 806-809, 1978.
[5] D.T. Bar, "Practical Consequences of Formal Definitions of Inheritance," J. Object-Oriented Programming, pp. 43-49, Aug. 1992.
[6] A.H. Bond, "A Predicate Logic Approach to CAD/CAM Modeling," AI EDAM, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 39-58, 1992.
[7] G. Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1994.
[8] R.A. Brooks, Model-Based Computer Vision, UMI Research Press, 1981.
[9] D.M. Chorafas, Knowledge Engineering: Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Representation, the Role of the Knowledge Engineer, and Domains Fertile to AI Implementation, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
[10] E. Davis, "The Mercator Representation of Spatial Knowledge," Proc. IJCAI 83, pp. 295-301, 1983.
[11] E. Davis, "A Logical Framework for Commonsense Predictions of Solid Object Behaviour," AI in Eng., vol. 3, no. 3, 1983.
[12] E. Davis, Representations of Commonsense Knowledge, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1990.
[13] M. Dimanzo, G. Adorni, and F. Giuhchiglia, "Reasoning About Scene Descriptions," Proc. IEEE, vol. 74, no. 7, July 1986.
[14] Code of Practice on Provision of Means of Escape in Case of Fire and Allied Requirements, Building Ordinance Office, Buildings and Lands Dept., Hong Kong, 1986.
[15] G. Fischer and K. Nakakoji, "Making Design Objects Relevant to the Task at Hand," Proc. AAAI-91, 1991.
[16] G. Fischer and T. Mastaglio, "A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge-Based Critic Systems," Decision Support Systems, vol. 7, pp. 355-378, 1991.
[17] F.J. Garijo and L.A. de Garrido, "A Knowledge Based System for House Design," Proc. 1988 IEEE Int'l Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1988.
[18] F. Giunchiglia, C. Ferrari, P. Traverso, and E. Trucco, "Understanding Scene Descriptions by Integrating Different Sources of Knowledge," Univ. of Ge noa, Technical Report MRG/DIST No. 9101-02, Jan. 1991.
[19] A.K. Goel, J.L. Kolodner, M. Pearce, R. Billington, and C. Zimring, "Towards a Case-Based Tool forAiding Conceptual Design Problem Solving," Proc. Workshop Case-Based Reasoning (DARPA),Washington, D.C., Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
[20] A. Goel, "Integrating Case-Based and Model-Based Reasoning: A Computational Model of Design Problem Solving," AI Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 2, Summer, 1992, pp. 50-54.
[21] K.J. Hammond, "Planning and Goal Interaction: The Use of Past Solutions in Present Situations, Proc. Third Nat'l Conf. Artificial Intelligence, pp. 127-138, 1983.
[22] V.D. Hunt, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems Sourcebook, Chapman and Hall, 1986.
[23] Notes on Architecture, Information Design Inc., Crisp Publications, 1990.
[24] IF/Prolog Manual, version 4.1, InterFace Computer, GmbH, 1992.
[25] D. Jain and M.L. Maher, "Combining Expert Systems and CAD techniques," Proc. Artificial Intelligence Developments and Applications, Australian Joint Artificial Intelligence Conf., North-Holland, p. 65, 1987.
[26] X. Kong, H. Everett, and G. Toussaint, "The Graham Scan Triangulates Simple Polygons," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 713-716, 1990.
[27] B. Kuipers, "Representing Knowledge of Large-Scale Space," MIT AI Lab, Technical Report No. TR-418, July 1977.
[28] S.-Y. Lye and H.K. Ho, "Knowledge-Based CAD System for Protective Packaging Design," AI EDAM, 1991.
[29] B. MacKeller and J. Peckham, "Representing Design Objects in Sorac," Artificial Intelligence in Design '92, J.S. Gero, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 201-219, 1992.
[30] J. Malik and T. Binford, "Reasoning in Time and Space," Proc. IJCAI-83, pp. 333-345, 1983.
[31] R. Oxman and J.S. Gero, "Using an Expert System for Design Diagnosis and Design Synthesis," Expert Systems, vol. 4, no. 1, 1987.
[32] R.E. Oxman, "Case-Based Design Support: Supporting Architectural Composition Through Precedent Libraries, J. Architectural Planning Research, 1993.
[33] L.F. Pau and S.S. Nielsen, "A Knowledge-Based System for Computer-Aided Architectural Design for Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort," AI EDAM, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 71-88, 1990.
[34] R.N. Pelavin, J.F. Allen, H.A. Kautz, and J.D. Teneberg, Reasoning About Plans, Morgan Kaufmann, 1990.
[35] D.N Perkins, Knowledge As Design, Erlbaum, 1986.
[36] Building (Planning) Regulations, Buildings Ordinance Office, Buildings and Lands Dept., Hong Kong, 1984.
[37] S. Rossbach, Interior Design With Feng Shui, Rider, 1987.
[38] R.C. Schank and C.J. Rieger III, "Inference and the Computer Understanding of Natural Language," Artificial Intelligence, 1974.
[39] S.C. Shapiro, Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, John Wiley and Sons, 1990.
[40] E. Shaviv, "Layout Design Problems: Systematic Approaches," Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, A. Pipes, ed., pp. 28-52, 1985.
[41] H. Shimodaira, "Basic Structure of a Building Model for Representing and Using Knowledge of Buildings in CAAD Systems," Artificial Intelligence in Design '92, J.S. Gero, ed., pp. 241-263, 1992.
[42] S. Slade, "Case-Based Reasoning: A Research Paradigm," AI Magazine, pp. 42-55, Spring 1991.
[43] K.W. Smithies, Principles of Design in Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.
[44] C. Stanfill and D.L. Waltz, "The Memory-Based Reasoning Paradigm," Proc. Case-Based Reasoning Workshop, J. Kolodner. ed., pp. 414-424, 1988.
[45] G.T. Toussaint and J.A. McAlear, "A Simple O(n log n) Algorithm for Finding the Maximum Distance between Two Finite Planar Sets," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 1, pp. 21-24, 1982.
[46] G.T. Toussaint and B.K. Bhattacharya, "Optimal Algorithms for Computing the Minimum Distance between Two Finite Planar Sets," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 2, pp. 79-82, 1983.
[47] P.R. Wallach, D.E. Hepler, and D.J. Hepler, Architecture Drafting and Design, McGraw-Hill, 1993.
[48] D. Waltz and L. Boggess, "Visual Analog Representations for Natural Language," Proc. IJCAI-79, 1979.
[49] D. Walters, Feng Shui Handbook, Aquarian Press, 1991.
[50] R. Kapur et al., "Design of an Efficient Weighted Random Pattern Generation System," Proc. Int'l Test Conf., IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994, pp. 491-500.
[51] W. Wolf, "Object-Oriented Implementation Issues in an Experimental CAD System," Software—Practice and Experience, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 287-304, Apr. 1992.

Index Terms:
Computer-aided architectural design, design knowledge representation, spatial knowledge representation, hybrid knowledge representation, diagrammatic reasoning, representation of government regulations, interior design principles, expert systems, decision support systems.
Citation:
Hon Wai Chun, Edmund Ming-Kit Lai, "Intelligent Critic System for Architectural Design," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 625-639, July-Aug. 1997, doi:10.1109/69.617054
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.