This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Deductive Environment for Dealing with Objects and Nonmonotonic Reasoning
July-August 1997 (vol. 9 no. 4)
pp. 539-558

Abstract—The BQM—an acronym that stands for Bottom-up Query machine, the role played by our system in the framework of the KIWIS system [2]—system extends deductive database technology with knowledge structuring capabilities to provide an advanced environment for the development of data and knowledge-based applications. The system relies on a knowledge representation language that combines the declarativeness of logic programming with the notions of object, inheritance with exceptions, and message passing. Exceptions are supported by allowing rules with negated heads. The use of exceptions inside the inheritance mechanism makes the language inherently nonmonotonic. The paper contains a comprehensive description of both the language and the implementation principles of the BQM system. It begins by providing a model-theoretic semantics of the language based on the notion of least model. A fixpoint semantics, providing a constructive definition of the least model, is given as well. Then, a number of implementation techniques for efficient query evaluation are described. Such techniques significantly extend "traditional" deductive database query evaluation strategies to deal with monotonic reasoning. A description of the architecture of the current prototype of the BQM system is also given.

[1] K. Apt, H.A. Blair, and A. Walker, "Towards a Theory of Declarative Knowledge," Foundations of Deductive Databases and Logic Programming, J. Minker, ed., pp. 89-148. Morgan Kaufmann, 1988.
[2] Ahlsen et al., "The KIWIS Knowledge Base Management System," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. CAiSE'91,Trondheim, Norway, May 1991.
[3] S. Abiteboul and P.C. Kanellakis,“Object identity as a query language primitive,” Proc. 1989 ACM SIGMOD Int’l Conf. the Management of Data, SIGMOD Record, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 159-173, June 1989.
[4] H. Ait-Kaci and R. Nasr, "LOGIN: A Logic Programming Language with Built-In Inheritance," The J. of Logic Programming, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185-215, Oct. 1986.
[5] I. Balbin and K. Ramamohanarao, "A Generalization of the Differential Approach to Recursive Query Evaluation," J. Logic Programming, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259-262, Sept. 1987.
[6] F. Bancilhon, "Object-Oriented Database Systems," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf., pp. 152-162, 1988.
[7] F. Bancilhon, D. Maier, Y. Sagiv, and J.D. Ullman, "Magic Sets and Other Strange Ways to Implement Logic Programs," Proc. Fifth ACM PODS Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 1-15, 1986.
[8] C. Beeri and R. Ramakrishnan, "On the Power of Magic," Proc. Sixth ACM PODS Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 269-283, 1987.
[9] I. Balbin, G.S. Port, K. Ramamohanarao, and K. Meenakshi, “Efficient Bottom-UP Computation of Queries on Stratified Databases,” J. Logic Programming, vol. 11, nos. 3 and 4, pp. 295-344, 1991.
[10] F. Buccafurri, N. Leone, L. Palopoli, and P. Rullo, "Disjunctive Ordered Logic," Proc. DEXA '95,London, pp. 303-312, Sept., 1995.
[11] F. Buccafurri, N. Leone, and P. Rullo, "Stable Models and Their Computation for Logic Programming with Inheritance and True Negation," The J. of Logic Programming. North-Holland, 1996.
[12] F. Cacace,S. Ceri,S. Crespi-Reghizzi,L. Tanca,, and R. Zicari,“Interating object-oriented data modeling with a rule-based programmingparadigm,” Proc. 1990 ACM SIGMOD Int’l Conf. on Management of Data, SIGMOD Record, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 225-237, June 1990.
[13] M. Cadoli, T. Eiter, and G. Gottlob, "Default Logic as a Query Language," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf., Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR-94), pp. 99-108, 1994.
[14] D. Chimenti, The LDL System Prototype, IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 2, no. 1, March 1990, pp. 76-90.
[15] W. Chen and D.S. Warren, "C-Logic for Complex Objects," Proc. ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symp. Principles of Database Systems,Philadelphia, pp. 369-378, Mar. 1989.
[16] M. Gelfond and V. Lifschitz (1990), “Logic Programs with Classical Negation,” Proc. of the 7th Intl. Conf. on Logic Programming, pp. 579-597, MIT Press.
[17] S. Greco, N. Leone, and P. Rullo, "COMPLEX: An Object-Oriented Logic Programming System," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 344-359, Aug. 1992.
[18] R. Krishnamurthy, H. Boral, and C. Zaniolo,“Optimization of nonrecursive queries,”inProc. 12th Int. Conf. Very Large Databases, Kyoto, Japan, Aug. 1986, pp. 128–137.
[19] M. Kifer and G. Lausen, “F-Logic: A Higher-Order Language for Reasoning About Objects, Inheritance, and Scheme,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., 1989.
[20] R. Kowalski and F. Sadri (1990), “Logic Programs with Exceptions,” Proc. 7th Intl. Conf. on Logic Programming, pp. 598-613.
[21] N. Leone, A. Mecchia, G. Rossi, and P. Rullo, "A Deductive Environment for Dealing with Objects and Non-Monotonic Reasoning," CRAI Technical Report RI 94-06., Rende, Italy, 1994.
[22] N. Leone and G. Rossi, "Well-Founded Semantics and Stratification for Ordered Logic Programs," New Generation Computing, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 91-121. Springer-Verlag, Nov. 1993.
[23] N. Leone and P. Rullo, "An Efficient Strategy for the Bottom-Up Evaluation of Datalog Queries," The Computer J., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 519-527, 1992.
[24] C. Lecluse, P. Richard, and F. Velez, “An Object-Oriented Data Model,” Proc. 1988 ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 424-433, 1988.
[25] E. Laenens, D. Saccà, and D. Vermeir, "Extending Logic Programming," Proc. ACM SIGMOD, May 1990.
[26] E. Laenens and D. Vermeir, "A Fixpoint Semantics for Ordered Logic," J. Logic and Computation, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 159-185, Dec., 1990.
[27] E. Laenens and D. Vermeir, "Assumption-Free Semantics for Ordered Logic Programs: On the Relationships between Well-Founded and Stable Partial Models," J. of Logic and Computation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 133-172, May 1992.
[28] F.G. McCabe, "Logic and Objects," PhD thesis, Univ. of London, 1988.
[29] M.A. Derr, G. Phipps, and K.A. Ross, "Glue-Nail: A Deductive Database System," J. Clifford and R. King, eds., Proc. Int'l Conf. ACM Management Data, pp. 308-317, 1991.
[30] T.C. Przymusinski, "On the Declarative Semantics of Deductive Databases and Logic Programs," J. Minker, ed., Foundations of Deductive Databases and Logic Programming, pp. 193-216. Morgan Kaufmann, 1988.
[31] R. Reiter, "A Logic for Default Reasoning," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 13, pp. 81-132, 1980.
[32] K.A. Ross, "Modular Stratification and Magic Sets for DATALOG Programs with Negation," Proc. Ninth ACM PODS Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 161-171, 1990; extended version, containing new results, obtained from author.
[33] R. Ramakrishnan,D. Srivastava,, and S. Sudarshan,“Coral_Control, relations and logic,” Proc. 18th Int’l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 547-559.,Vancouver, Can., Aug. 1992.
[34] D. Sacca and C. Zaniolo, "The Generalized Counting Method of Recursive Logic Queries for Databases," Theoretical Computer Science, no. 62, pp. 187-220, Nov. 1989.
[35] V.S. Subrahmanian, "Amalgamating Knowledge Bases," ACM Trans. Database Systems, 1994.
[36] A. Tarski, "A Lattice Theoretical Fixpoint Theorem and Its Application," Pacific J. of Math., no. 5, pp. 285-309, 1955.
[37] J. Ullman, Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, vol. 1. Computer Science Press, 1988.
[38] A. van Gelder, K. Ross, and J. Schlipf, "Unfounded Sets and Well-founded Semantics for General Logic Programs," Proc. Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 221-230, 1988.
[39] M.Y. Vardi, "The Complexity of Relational Query Languages," Proc. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing, pp. 137-146, 1982.
[40] P. Wegner, "Dimensions of Object-Based Language Design," ACM SIGPLAN Notices (Proc. OOPSLA 87), Vol. 22, No. 12, 1987, pp. 168-182.

Index Terms:
Deductive databases, object-oriented programming, nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming, bottom-up evaluation, optimization techniques.
Citation:
Nicola Leone, Pasquale Rullo, Antonella Mecchia, Giuseppe Rossi, "A Deductive Environment for Dealing with Objects and Nonmonotonic Reasoning," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 539-558, July-Aug. 1997, doi:10.1109/69.617049
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.