This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Data/Knowledge Paradigm for the Modeling and Design of Operations Support Systems
March-April 1997 (vol. 9 no. 2)
pp. 275-291

Abstract—This paper develops the Smart Object paradigm and its instantiation, which provide a new conceptualization for the modeling, design, and development of an important but little researched class of information systems, Operations Support Systems (OSS). OSS is our term for systems which provide interactive support for the management of large, complex operations environments, such as manufacturing plants, military operations, and large power generation facilities. The most salient feature of OSS' is their dynamic nature. The number and kind of elements composing the system as well as the mode of control of those elements change frequently in response to the environment. The abstraction of control and the ease with which complex dynamic control behavior can be modeled and simulated is one of the important aspects of the paradigm. The framework for the Smart Object paradigm is the fusion of object-oriented design models with declarative knowledge representation and active inferencing from AI models. Additional defining concepts from data/knowledge models, semantic data models, active databases, and frame based systems, are added to the synthesis as justified by their contribution to the ability to naturally model OSS at a high level of abstraction. The model assists in declaratively representing domain data/knowledge and its structure, and task or process knowledge, in addition to modeling multilevel control and interobject coordination.

[1] G. Agha, ACTORS: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986.
[2] R. Belanger, "MODSIM II, A Modular, Object-Oriented Language," Proc. Winter Simulation Conf., Balci, Sadowski, and Nance, eds., pp. 118-122, 1990.
[3] V.M. Berzins, M. Gray, and D. Naumann, "Abstraction-Based Software Development," Comm. ACM, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 402-415, 1986.
[4] G. Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1994.
[5] L. Brownston,R. Farrell,E. Kant, and N. Martin,Programming Expert Systems in OPS5 An Introduction to Rule-Based Programming. Addison Wesley, 1985.
[6] G.C. Buchanan, V.K. Vaishnavi, and A.J. Nevins, "Modeling Operations Management Support Systems," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. 134-136,Los Angeles, Nov.4-7, 1990.
[7] G.C. Buchanan, "Modeling Operations Management Support Systems," unpublished PhD dissertation, Dept. of Computer Information Systems, Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, 1991.
[8] T. Bylander and B. Chandrasekaran, "Generic Tasks for Knowledge-Based Reasoning: The 'Right' Level of Abstraction for Knowledge Acquisition," Int'l J. Man-Machine Studies, vol. 26, 1987, pp. 231-243.
[9] S. Caselli, C. Papaconstantinou, K.L. Doty, and S. Navathe, "A Structure-Function-Control Paradigm for Knowledge-Based Modeling and Design of Manufacturing Workcells," J. Intelligent Manufacturing, Special Issue: Control of Manufacturing Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 11-30, Feb. 1992.
[10] B. Chandrasekaran, "Generic Tasks in Knowledge-Based Reasoning: High-Level Building Blocks for Expert System Design," IEEE Expert, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 23-30, Fall 1986.
[11] P. Coad and E. Yourdon, Object-Oriented Analysis, second ed., Yourdon Press, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1991.
[12] P. Coad and E. Yourdon, Object-Oriented Design, first edition. Prentice Hall, 1991.
[13] A. Davis and D. Robson, Smalltalk-80: The Language.New York: Addison-Wesley, 1989.
[14] U. Dayal,B. Blaustein,A. Buchmann et al., , "The HiPAC project: Combining active databases and timing constraints," SIGMOD Record, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51-70, Mar. 1988.
[15] C. Dony, “Exception Handling and Object-Oriented Programming: Towards a Synthesis,” Proc. ACM Conf. Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications, pp. 322–330, Oct. 1990.
[16] A. Diller, Z: An Introduction to Formal Methods, second edition. New York: John Wiley&Sons, 1994.
[17] C.A. Ellis and S.J. Gibbs, "Active Objects: Realities and Possibilities," W. Kim and F.H. Lochovsky, eds., Object-Oriented Concepts, Databases, and Applications, pp. 561-572. ACM Press, 1989.
[18] S. Fickas and R. Helm, "Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in the Design of Composite Systems," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., pp. 470-482, vol. 18, June 1992.
[19] R. Fikes and T. Kehler, "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning," Comm. ACM, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 904-920, Sept. 1985.
[20] D. Garlan and D. Perry, "Introduction to the Special Issue on Software Engineering," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., Apr. 1995, pp. 269-274.
[21] M.R. Genesereth and M.L. Ginsberg, “Logic Programming,” Comm. ACM, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 933-941, Sept. 1985.
[22] M.R. Genesereth and N.J. Nilsson,Logical foundations of artificial intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA, 1987.
[23] A.J. Gonzalez and D.D. Dankel, The Engineering of Knowledge-Based Systems: Theory and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993.
[24] D. Gregory, "Delimiting Expert Systems," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cypernetics, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 834-843, Nov./Dec. 1986.
[25] W. Harrison and H. Ossher, "Subject-Oriented Programming (A Critique of Pure Objects)," OOPSLA '93, pp. 411-427, 1993.
[26] F. Hayes-Roth, "Rule Based Systems," Comm. ACM, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 921-932, 1985.
[27] F. Hayes-Roth, J.E. Davidson, L.D. Erman, and J.S. Lark, "Frameworks for Developing Intelligent Systems: The ABE Systems Engineering Environment," IEEE Expert, pp. 30-40, June 1991.
[28] B. Hayes-Roth, K. Pfleger, P. Lalanda, P. Morignot, and M. Balabnovic, "A Domain-Specific Software Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 288-301, Apr. 1995.
[29] M. Houtsma and P. Apers, "A Semantic Model for Integration of Data and Knowledge," Computing and Information, R. Janaki and W.W. Koczkodaj, eds., pp. 327-333. Elsevier Science, 1989.
[30] R. Hull and R. King, “Semantic Database Modelling: Survey, Applications, and Research Issues,” Computing Surveys, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 201-260, ACM, Sept. 1987.
[31] M. Ibrahim, "Report of OOPSLA/ECOOP '90 Workshop on Reflection and Metalevel Architecture in Object-Oriented Programming," Addendum to Proc. OOPSLA/ECOOP '90, pp. 73-80, 1990.
[32] T. Ishida, Y. Sasi, K. Nakata, and Y. Fukuhara, "A MetaLevel Control Architecture for Production Systems," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 44-52, Feb., 1995.
[33] C. B. Jones,Systematic Software Development Using VDM. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990, 2nd ed.
[34] L. Kerschberg, R. Baum, K. DeJohg, A. Waisanen, J. Yoon, I. Huang, K. Eisgruber, and B. Utz, "Knowledge and Data Eng. of a Telecommunications Network, H. Kangassoalo, ed., Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Entity Relationship Approach, pp. 255-269. Elsevier Science, 1991.
[35] W. Kohn,"Declarative control architecture," Comm. ACM, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 65-79, Aug. 1991.
[36] W.L. Kuechler, N. Lim, and V.K. Vaishnavi, "A Smart Object Approach to Hybrid Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Strategies," J.F. Nunamaker Jr. and R.H. Sprague Jr., eds., Proc. 27th Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, vol. III, pp. 32-41,Maui, Hawaii, IEEE CS Press, Jan.3-6, 1994.
[37] K. Lee and S. Lee, "An Object-Oriented Approach to Data/ Knowledge Modeling Based on Logic," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 289-294, 1990.
[38] Z. Lichtman and D. Chester, "Rule Splitting in Production Systems," Computing and Information, R. Janaki and W.W. Koczkodaj, eds., pp. 411-415. Elsevier Science, 1989.
[39] Metalevel Architectures and Reflection, P. Maes, and D. Nardi, eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V., 1988.
[40] D.R. McCarthy and U. Dayal,"The architecture of an active data base management system," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 215-224, June 1989.
[41] L. Medsker and J. Liebowitz, Design and Development of Expert Systems and Neural Networks.New York: Macmillan, 1994.
[42] J.A. Miller, K.J. Kohut, W.D. Potter, E. Ucar, and A.A. Keskin, "Query Driven Simulation Using Active KDL: A Functional Object-Oriented Database System" Int'l J. Computer Simulation, vol., 1, no. 1, pp. 1-30, 1991.
[43] S.B. Navathe and A. Balaraman, "A Transaction Architecture for a General Purpose Semantic Data Model," T.J. Teorey, ed., Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Entity-Relationship Approach, pp. 511-541, Environmental Research Institute, San Mateo, Calif., Oct.23-25, 1991.
[44] A.J. Nevins, V.K. Vaishnavi, and R.A. Karam, "INFOLOG: A Global Knowledge Based Support System for Nuclear Power Plant Operations," Proc. EPRI Seminar on Data Acquisition, Control, and Comm. in Power Plants, 1988.
[45] H.P. Nii, "Blackboard Systems, Part One: The Blackboard Model of Problem Solving and the Evolution of Blackboard Architectures," AI Magazine, vol. 7, 1986, pp. 38-53.
[46] J. Palmucci and C.E. Hewett, "Organization of Large-Scale Open Information Systems," C. Hewett, C. Manning, J. Inman, and G. Agha, eds., Toward Open Information Systems Science.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.
[47] J. Parsons and Y. Wand, "Guidelines for Evaluating Classes in Data Modeling," Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Informations Systems,Dallas, pp. 1-8, 1992.
[48] J. Peckham and F. Maryanski, “Semantic Data Models,” Computing Surveys, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 153-189, ACM, Sept. 1988.
[49] W.D. Potter and L. Kerschberg, "A Unified Approach to Modeling Knowledge and Data," Proc. IFIP TC2 Conf. Knowledge and Data (DS-2), North-Holland, pp. 265-291, 1986.
[50] W.D. Potter and R.P. Trueblood, "Traditional, Semantic, and Hyper-Semantic Approaches to Data Modeling," Computer, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 53-63, June 1988.
[51] W.D. Potter, J.A. Miller, and K.I. Krzysztof, "A Hyper-Semantic Approach to Intelligent Information Systems," Integrated Computer-Aided Eng., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 341-357, 1994.
[52] R.S. Pressman, Software Engineering—A Practitioner's Approach, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992.
[53] J. Richardson and P. Schwartz, "Aspects: Extending Objects to Support Multiple, Independent Roles," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 298-307, 1991.
[54] P.S. Rosenbloom, J.E. Laird, A. Newell, and R. McCarl, "A Preliminary Analysis of the Soar Architecture as a Basis for General Intelligence," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 47, pp. 289-325, 1991.
[55] M. Stonebraker,L. Row, and M. Hirohama,"The implementation of POSTGRES," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 125-142, Mar. 1990.
[56] J.J. Sviokla, "Business Implications of Knowledge-Based Systems," Data Base, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 5-10, 1986.
[57] J.J. Sviokla, "An Examination of the Impact of Expert Systems on the Firm: The Case of XCON," MIS Quarterly, pp. 126-140, June 1990.
[58] L. Gargano, A.A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Minimum Time Broadcasting in Faulty Star Networks,” Discrete Applied Math., vol. 82, pp. 95-117, 1998.
[59] M. Vesti, I. Nordbo, and A. Solvberg, "Modeling Control in Rule-Based Systems," IEEE Software, pp. 76-81, Mar. 1994.
[60] J. Widom and S.J. Finkelstein,"Set-oriented production rules in relational database systems," Proc. 1990 ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 259-270, 1990.

Index Terms:
Operations support systems, modeling control abstractions, knowledge bases, databases, object model, semantic data model, production system model.
Citation:
Vijay K. Vaishnavi, Gary C. Buchanan, William L. Kuechler Jr., "A Data/Knowledge Paradigm for the Modeling and Design of Operations Support Systems," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 275-291, March-April 1997, doi:10.1109/69.591452
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.