This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Divergence Control Algorithms for Epsilon Serializability
March-April 1997 (vol. 9 no. 2)
pp. 262-274

Abstract—This paper presents divergence control methods for epsilon serializability (ESR) in centralized databases. ESR alleviates the strictness of serializability (SR) in transaction processing by allowing for limited inconsistency. The bounded inconsistency is automatically maintained by divergence control (DC) methods in a way similar to SR is maintained by concurrency control (CC) mechanisms. However, DC for ESR allows more concurrency than CC for SR. We first demonstrate the feasibility of ESR by showing the design of three representative DC methods: two-phase locking, timestamp ordering and optimistic approaches. DC methods are designed by systematically enhancing CC algorithms in two stages: extension and relaxation. In the extension stage, a CC algorithm is analyzed to locate the places where it identifies non-SR conflicts of database operations. In the relaxation stage, the non-SR conflicts are relaxed to allow for controlled inconsistency. We then demonstrate the applicability of ESR by presenting the design of DC methods using other most known inconsistency specifications, such as absolute value, age and total number of nonserializably read data items. In addition, we present a performance study using an optimistic divergence control algorithm as an example to show that a substantial improvement in concurrency can be achieved in ESR by allowing for a small amount of inconsistency.

[1] P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[2] C. Papadimitriou, "The Serializability of Concurrent Updates," J. ACM, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 631-653, 1979.
[3] P.A. Franaszek and J.T. Robinson, "Limitations of Concurrency in Transaction Processing," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-28, Mar. 1985.
[4] R. Agrawal, M.J. Carey, and M. Livny, "Concurrency Control Performance Modeling: Alternatives and Implications," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 609-654, Dec. 1987.
[5] P.S. Yu, D.M. Dias, and S.S. Lavenberg, "On the Analytical Modeling of Database Concurrency Control," J. ACM, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 831-872, Sept. 1993.
[6] C. Pu and A. Leff, "Replica Control in Distributed Systems: An Asynchronous Approach," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management Data, pp. 377-386, 1991.
[7] C. Pu, "Generalized Transaction Processing with Epsilon-Serializability," Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop High Performance Transaction Systems, 1991.
[8] C. Pu and A. Leff, "Autonomous Transaction Execution with Epsilon Serializability," Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Research Issues Data Eng.: Transaction and Query Processing, pp. 2-11, 1992.
[9] K. Ramamrithan and C. Pu, "A Formal Characterization of Epsilon-Serializability," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 997-1,007, Dec. 1995.
[10] P. Chrysanthis and K. Ramammritham, "Acta: The SAGA Continues," Transaction Models for Advanced Database Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann, Feb. 1992.
[11] P.A. Bernstein and N. Goodman, "Concurrency Control in Distributed Database Systems," ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1981, pp. 185-221.
[12] H.T. Kung and J.T. Robinson, "On Optimistic Methods for Concurrency Control," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 213-226, June 1981.
[13] P.S. Yu and D.M. Dias, "Analysis of Hybrid Concurrency Control Schemes for a High Data Contention Environment," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., pp. 118-129, Feb. 1992.
[14] P.S. Yu,H.U. Heiss,, and D.M. Dias,“Modeling and analysis of a time-stamp history-based certification protocol for concurrency control,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 525-537, 1991.
[15] A. Kawaguchi et al., "A Comparative Study of Divergence Control Algorithms," IBM Research Report RC 19563, May 1994.
[16] J.N. Gray et al., "Granularity of Locks and Degrees of Consistency in a Shared Data Base," Proc. IFIP TC-2 Working Conf. Modelling Data Base Management Systems, G.M. Nijssen, ed., pp. 1-29, North-Holland, 1976.
[17] H. Garcia-Molina and G. Wiederhold, Read-Only Transactions in a Distributed Database System ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 209-234, June 1982.
[18] W. Du and A.K. Elmagarmid, "Quasi Serializability: A Correctness Criterion for Global Concurrency Control in Interbase," Proc. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 347-355, 1989.
[19] H. Korth and G. Speegle, “Formal Model of Correctness without Serializability,” Proc. SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, 1988.
[20] N. Krishnakumar and A.J. Bernstein, "Bounded Ignorance: A Technique for Increasing Concurrency in a Replicated System," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 586-625, Dec. 1994.
[21] A. Sheth and M. Rusinkiewicz, "Management of Interdependent Data: Specifying Dependency and Consistency Requirements," Proc. Workshop Management Replicated Data, pp. 133-136, 1990.
[22] A. Sheth and P. Krishnamurthy, "Redundant Data Management in Bellcore and BCC Databases," Technical Report TM-STS-015011/1, Bell Communications Research, Dec. 1989.
[23] A. Sheth, Y. Leu, and A.K. Elmagarmid, "Maintaining Consistency of Interdependent Data in Multidatabases Systems," Technical Report TM-STS-019409/1, Bell Communications Research, June 1991.
[24] G. Wiederhold and X. Qian, "Modeling Asynchrony in Distributed Databases," Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 246-250, 1987.
[25] R. Alonso, D. Barbara, and H. Garcia-Molina, "Data Caching Issues in an Information Retrieval System," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 359-384, Sept. 1990.
[26] D. Barbara and H. Garcia-Molina, "The Case for Controlled Inconsistency in Replicated Data," Proc. Workshop Management Replicated Data, pp. 35-42, 1990.
[27] K.-L. Wu, P.S. Yu, and C. Pu, Divergence Control for Epsilon-Serializability Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 506-515, 1992.
[28] C. Pu et al., "Divergence Control for Distributed Database Systems," Distributed and Parallel Databases, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 85-109, Jan. 1995.
[29] S.H. Son and S. Kouloumbis, "Replication Control for Distributed Real-Time Database Systems," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 144-151, 1992.
[30] S.H. Son and S. Kouloumbis, "A Token-Based Synchronization Scheme Using Espilon-Serializability and Performance Real-Time Distributed Databases," Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Database Systems Advanced Applications, 1993.
[31] M.U. Kamath and K. Ramamritham, “Performance Characteristics of Epsilon Serializability with Hierarchical Inconsistency Bounds,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 587-594, Apr. 1993.

Index Terms:
Epsilon serializability, divergence control, serializability, concurrency control, transaction processing.
Kun-Lung Wu, Philip S. Yu, Calton Pu, "Divergence Control Algorithms for Epsilon Serializability," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 262-274, March-April 1997, doi:10.1109/69.591451
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.