This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
The Expressive Power of Temporal Relational Query Languages
January-February 1997 (vol. 9 no. 1)
pp. 120-134

Abstract—We consider the representation of temporal data based on tuple and attribute timestamping. We identify the requirements in modeling temporal data and elaborate on their implications in the expressive power of temporal query languages. We introduce a temporal relational data model where N1NF relations and attribute timestamping are used and one level of nesting is allowed. For this model, a nested relational tuple calculus (NTC) is defined. We follow a comparative approach in evaluating the expressive power of temporal query languages, using NTC as a metric and comparing it with the existing temporal query languages. We prove that NTC subsumes the expressive power of these query languages. We also demonstrate how various temporal relational models can be obtained from our temporal relations by NTC and give equivalent NTC expressions for their languages. Furthermore, we show the equivalence of intervals and temporal elements (sets) as timestamps in our model.

[1] L.E. McKenzie, Jr. and R.T. Snodgrass, “Evaluation of Relational Algebras Incorporating the Time Dimension in Databases,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 501–543, 1991.
[2] Temporal Databases: Theory, Design, and Implementation, A.U. Tansel, J. Clifford, S. Gadia, S. Jajodia, A. Segev, and R. Snodgrass, eds., Benjamin/Cummings, 1993.
[3] Proc. Int'l Workshop Infrastructure Temporal Databases, R. Snodgrass, ed., Arlington, Texas, June 1993.
[4] The TSQL2 Temporal Query Language. R.T. Snodgrass, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.
[5] J. Clifford, A. Crocker, and A. Tuzhilin, “On Completeness of Historical Relational Query Languages,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 64–116, 1994.
[6] S.K. Gadia, "Toward Completeness of Temporal Databases," technical report, Electrical Eng. and Computer Science Dept., Texas Technical Univ., Lubbock, 1986.
[7] S.K. Gadia and C.-S. Yeung, "Inadequacy of Interval Timestamps in Temporal Databases," Information Sciences, vol. 54, pp. 1-22, 1991.
[8] J. Clifford and A. Croker, "The Historical Relational Data Model (HRDM) and Algebra Based on Lifespans," Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Engineering, pp. 528-537,Los Angeles, Calif., IEEE CS Press, Feb. 1987.
[9] S.K. Gadia, "A Homogeneous Relational Model and Query Languages for Temporal Databases," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 418-448, Dec. 1988.
[10] R.T. Snodgrass, “The Temporal Query Language TQuel,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 247–298, 1987.
[11] N.A. Lorentzos and R.G. Johnson, "TRA: A Model for a Temporal Relational Algebra," Proc. Conf. Temporal Aspects Information Systems, C. Rolland, F. Bodart, and M. Leonard, eds., pp. 99-112, May 1987.
[12] G. Bhargava and S.K. Gadia, "Relational Database Systems with Zero Information Loss," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 5, pp. 76-87, 1993.
[13] A.U. Tansel, "Temporal Relational Data Model," to appear in IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng.
[14] A.U. Tansel, "A Statistical Interface for Historical Relational Databases," Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 538-546,Los Angeles, Feb. 1987.
[15] A. Tuzhilin and J. Clifford,“A temporal relational algebra as a basis for temporal relational completeness,” Proc. 16th VLDB Conf., 1990.
[16] N.A. Lorentzos and R.G. Johnson, "Extending Relational Algebra to Manipulate Temporal Data," Information Systems, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 289-296, 1988.
[17] S.B. Navathe and R. Ahmed, "TSQL-A Language Interface for History Databases," Proc. Conf. Temporal Aspects Information Systems, C. Rolland, F. Bodart, and M. Leonard, eds., pp. 113-128, May 1987.
[18] N. Sarda, "Extensions to SQL for Historical Databases," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 220-230, June 1990.
[19] E. McKenzie and R. Snodgrass, "Supporting Valid Time in a Historical Algebra," Technical Report TR87-008, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1987.
[20] J. Clifford and A. Tansel, "On an Algebra for Historical Relational Databases: Two Views," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., 1985.
[21] A.U. Tansel, "Adding Time Dimension to Relational Model and Extending Relational Algebra," Information Systems, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 343-355, 1986.
[22] A.U. Tansel,“A historical query language,” Information Sciences, vol. 53, pp. 101-133, 1991.
[23] N.A. Lorentzos, "Axiomatic Generalization of the Relational Data Model to Support Valid Time Data," Proc. Int'l Workshop Infrastructure Temporal Databases, R. Snodgrass, ed., pp. w1-w16, June 1993.
[24] J. Ullman, Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, vol. 1. Computer Science Press, 1988.
[25] E.F. Codd, "Relational Completeness of Relational Data Base Sublanguages," Data Base Systems, R. Rustin, ed., Prentice Hall, 1972.
[26] A.U. Tansel and E. Tin, "Expressive Power of Temporal Relational Query Languages," technical report., Bernard M. Baruch College, Dept. of Computer Information Systems, City Univ. of New York, New York, 1993.
[27] A.U. Tansel and L. Garnett, "Nested Historical Relations," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 284-293, 1989.
[28] A.U. Tansel, M.E. Arkun, and G. Ozsoyoglu, "Time-by-Example Query Language for Historical Databases," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 464-478, 1989.
[29] F. Bancilhon, "On the Completeness of Query Languages for Relational Databases," Proc. Seventh Symp. Math. Foundations of Computing, pp. 112-123, 1978.
[30] I. Goralwalla, A.U. Tansel, and T. Özsu, "Experimenting with Temporal Relational Databases," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management,Baltimore, pp. 296-303, Oct. 1995.

Index Terms:
Attribute timestamping, expressive power of temporal query languages, N1NF relations, temporal relational algebra, temporal relational calculus, temporal relational completeness, temporal relations, tuple timestamping.
Citation:
Abdullah Uz Tansel, Erkan Tin, "The Expressive Power of Temporal Relational Query Languages," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 120-134, Jan.-Feb. 1997, doi:10.1109/69.567055
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.