This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Customizing Transaction Models and Mechanisms in a Programmable Environment Supporting Reliable Workflow Automation
August 1996 (vol. 8 no. 4)
pp. 630-649

Abstract—A Transaction Specification and Management Environment (TSME) is a programmable system that supports implementation-independent specification of application-specific extended transaction models (ETMs) and configuration of transaction management mechanisms (TMMs) to enforce specified ETMs. The TSME can ensure correctness and reliability while allowing the functionality required by workflows and other advanced applications that require access to multiple heterogeneous, autonomous, and/or distributed (HAD) systems. To support ETM specification, the TSME provides a transaction specification language that describes dependencies between transactions. Unlike other ETM specification languages, TSME's dependency descriptors use a common set of primitives, and are enforceable, i.e., can be evaluated at any time during transaction execution to determine whether operations issued violate ETM specifications. To determine whether an ETM can be enforced in a specific HAD system environment, the TSME supports specification of the transactional capabilities of HAD systems, and comparison of these with ETM specifications to determine mismatches. To enforce ETMs that are more restrictive than those supported by the union of the transactional capabilities of HAD systems, the TSME provides a collection of transactional services. These services are programmable and configurable, i.e., they accept instructions that change their behavior as required by an ETM and can be combined in specific ways to create a run-time TMM capable of enforcing the ETM. We discuss the TSME in the context of a distributed object management system. We give ETM specification examples and describe corresponding TMM configurations for a telecommunications application.

[1] P. Attie, M. Singh, A. Sheth, and M. Rusinkiewicz, "Specifying and Enforcing Intertask Dependencies," Proc. 19th Int'l Conf. VLDB, Aug. 1993.
[2] A. Biliris et al., “ASSET: A System for Supporting Extended Transactions,” Proc. 1994 ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, June 1994.
[3] Y. Breitbart, D. Georgakopoulos, M. Rusinkiewicz, and A. Silberschatz, "On Rigorous Transaction Scheduling," IEEE Trans. Software Engineering, vol. 17, no. 9, Sept. 1991.
[4] P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[5] A. Buchmann, M. Ozsu, M. Hornick, D. Georgakopoulos, and F. Manola, "A Transaction Model for Active Distributed Object Systems," Advanced Transaction Models for New Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. Morgan-Kaufmann, 1992.
[6] B. Badrinath and K. Ramamritham, "Semantics-Based Concurrency Control: Beyond Commutativity," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Data Engineering, 1987.
[7] P. Chrysanthis and K. Ramamritham, “ACTA: A Framework for Specifying and Reasoning about Transaction Structure and Behavior,” Proc. SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, May 1990.
[8] P. Chrysanthis and K. Ramammritham, "Acta: The SAGA Continues," Transaction Models for Advanced Database Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann, Feb. 1992.
[9] W. Du and A.K. Elmagarmid, "Quasi Serializability: A Correctness Criterion for Global Concurrency Control in Interbase," Proc. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 347-355, 1989.
[10] U. Dayal, M. Hsu, and R. Ladin, "Organizing Long-Running Activities with Triggers and Transactions," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Management of Data, 1990.
[11] U. Dayal, M. Hsu, and R. Ladin, "A Transactional Model for Long-Running Activities," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. VLDB, 1991.
[12] A. Elmagarmid, Y. Leu, W. Litwin, and M. Rusinkiewicz, "A Multidatabase Transaction Model for InterBase," Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. VLDB, 1990.
[13] Advanced Transaction Models for New Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. Morgan-Kaufmann, 1992.
[14] "Encina Toollkit Server Core Programmer's Reference," TP-D120-20.15.0, Transarc Corp., 1992.
[15] A.A. Farrag and M.T. Ozsu, “Using Semantic Knowledge of Transactions to Increase Concurrency,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 503-525, Dec. 1989.
[16] "Special Issue on Workflow and Extended Transaction Systems," Data Engineering, M. Hsu, ed., vol. 16, no. 2, June 1993.
[17] D. Georgakopoulos and M. Hornick, "An Environment for the Specification and Management of Extended Transactions and Workflows in DOMS," technical report, TR-0218-09-92-165, GTE Labs Inc., Oct. 1992.
[18] D. Georgakopoulos and M. Hornick, "Specification and Management of Extended Transactions, Transactional Workflows, and Interrelated Objects in Distributed Object Computing," Technical Report, TR-0248-12-93-165, GTE Labs Inc., Dec. 1993.
[19] D. Georgakopoulos and M. Hornick, "A Framework for Enforceable Specification of Extended Transaction Models and Transactional Workflows," Int'l J. Intelligent and Cooperative Information Systems. World Scientific, Sept. 1994.
[20] D. Georgakopoulos, M. Hornick, P. Krychniak, and F. Manola, "Specification and Management of Extended Transactions in a Programmable Transaction Environment," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Data Engineering,Houston, Feb. 1994.
[21] D. Georgakopoulos, M. Hornick, and A. Sheth, "An Overview of Workflow Management: From Process Modeling to Workflow Automation Infrastructure," Distributed and Parallel Databases, Vol. 3, No. 2, Apr. 1995, pp. 119-153.
[22] H. Garcia-Molina, “Using Semantic Knowledge for Transaction Processing Databases,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 186-213, Mar. 1983.
[23] J. Gray and A. Reuter, Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques, Morgan Kauffman, 1993.
[24] D. Georgakopoulos, M. Rusinkiewicz, and W. Litwin, "Chronological Scheduling of Transactions with Temporal Dependencies," VLDB J., Jan. 1994.
[25] D. Geogakopoulos, M. Rusinkiewiez, and A. Sheth, “Using Tickets to Enforce the Serializability of Multidatabase Transactions,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 166-180, Feb. 1994.
[26] H. Garcia-Molina and K. Salem, "Sagas," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Ann. Conf., pp. 249-259, May 1987.
[27] M. Herlihy, "Apologizing Versus Asking Permission: Optimistic Concurrency Control for Abstract Data Types," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 15, no. 1, 1990.
[28] M. Hornick and D. Georgakopoulos, "Extending Heterogeneous Transaction Systems to Support Application-Specific Requirements," technical report, TR-0241-12-93-165, GTE Laboratories Inc., Dec. 1993.
[29] B. Liskov, "Distributed Programming in ARGUS," Comm. ACM, vol. 31, no. 3, Mar. 1988.
[30] N. Lynch, "Multilevel Atomicity: A New Correctness Criterion for Database Concurrency Control," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 8, no. 4, Dec. 1983.
[31] F. Manola, S. Heiler, D. Georgakopoulos, M. Hornick, and M. Brodie, "Distributed Object Management," Int'l J. Intelligent and Cooperative Information Systems, vol. 1, no. 1, Mar., 1992.
[32] E. Moss, Nested Transactions.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.
[33] "The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specification," Object Management Group and X/Open, OMG Document No. 91.12.1, Rev. 1.1, 1991.
[34] T.M. Ozsu and P. Valduriez, Principles of Distributed Database Systems. Prentice Hall, 1991.
[35] K. Ramamritham and P. Chrysanthis, "In Search of Acceptability Criteria: Database Consistency Requirements and Transaction Correctness Properties," Proc. Internal Workshop Distributed Object Management, Aug. 1992.
[36] W. Weihl, "Local Atomicity Properties: Modular Concurrency Control for Abstract Data Types," ACM Trans. Programming Languages and Systems, vol. 11, no. 2, 1989.
[37] H. Wachter and A. Reuter, "Contracts: A Means for Extending Control Beyond Transaction Boundaries," Database Transaction Models for Advanced Applications, A. Elmagarmid, ed. Morgan-Kaufmann, 1992.

Index Terms:
Extended transactions, transactional workflows, transaction model specification, transaction dependencies, programmable transaction management mechanisms, transaction management toolkits.
Citation:
Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Mark F. Hornick, Frank Manola, "Customizing Transaction Models and Mechanisms in a Programmable Environment Supporting Reliable Workflow Automation," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 630-649, Aug. 1996, doi:10.1109/69.536255
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.