This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Graph-Based Framework for Multiparadigmatic Visual Access to Databases
June 1996 (vol. 8 no. 3)
pp. 455-475

Abstract—We describe an approach for multiparadigmatic visual access to databases, which is proposed to achieve seamless integration of different interaction paradigms. The user is provided with an adaptive interface augmented by a user model, supporting different visual representations of both data and queries. The visual representations are characterized on the basis of the chosen visual formalisms, namely forms, diagrams, and icons. To access different databases, a unified data model, the Graph Model, is used as a common underlying formalism to which databases, expressed in the most popular data models, can be mapped. Graph Model databases are queried through the adaptive interface. The semantics of the query operations is formally defined in terms of graphical primitives. Such a formal approach permits us to define the concept of "atomic query," which is the minimal portion of a query that can be transferred from one interaction paradigm to another and processed by the system. Since certain interaction modalities and visual representations are more suitable for certain user classes, the system can suggest to the user the most appropriate interaction modality as well as the visual representation, according to the user model. Some results on user model construction are presented.

[1] M. Angelaccio, T. Catarci, and G. Santucci, “QBD*: A Graphical Query Language with Recursion,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 10, Oct. 1990.
[2] A. Badre, "Methodological issues for interface design: A user-centered approach," Technical Report SI/SD-93/01, Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Informazione, Univ. of Rome "La Sapienza," 1993.
[3] F. Bancilhon, S. Cluet, and C. Delobel, "A query language for the O2 object-oriented database system," Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Database Programming Languages, 1990.
[4] C. Batini, T. Catarci, M.F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "Visual query systems," Technical Report N.04.91, Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Univ. of Rome "La Sapienza," 1991.
[5] C. Batini, T. Catarci, M.F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "Visual strategies for querying databases," Proc. IEEE Workshop Visual Languages, pp. 183-189,Kobe, Japan, 1991.
[6] C. Batini, T. Catarci, M.F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "Visual query systems: A taxonomy," Proc. IFIP Second Working Conf. Visual Databases Systems, pp. 153-168, Budapest, 1991.
[7] C. Batini, T. Catarci, M.F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "On visual representations for database query systems," Proc. Interface to Real and Virtual Worlds Conf., pp. 273-283,Montpellier, France, 1993.
[8] Interactive Multimedia Computing, C.M. Blattner and R. Dannenberg, eds. ACM Press, 1991.
[9] R.J. Brachman, "What IS-A is and isn't: An analysis of taxonomic links in semantic networks," Computer, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 30-36, Oct. 1983.
[10] R.J. Brachman and J.G. Schmolze, "An overview of the KL-ONE knowledge representation system," Cognitive Science, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 171-216, 1985.
[11] T. Catarci, "On the expressive power of graphical query languages," Proc. Second IFIP W.G. 2.6 Working Conf. Visual Databases, pp. 404-414,Budapest, 1991.
[12] T. Catarci, S.K. Chang, and G. Santucci, "Query representation and management in a multiparadigmatic visual query environment," J. Intelligent Information Systems, special issue on "Advances in visual information management systems," vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 299-330, 1994.
[13] T. Catarci and G. Santucci, "Graphical primitives for querying heterogeneous databases," Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases IV, H. Kangassalo et al., eds., IOS Press, Proc. Second European-Japanese Seminar on Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, pp. 106-125,Finland, 1992.
[14] T. Catarci, G. Santucci, and M. Angelaccio, "Fundamental graphical primitives for visual query languages," Information Systems, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 75-98, 1993.
[15] A.K. Chandra, "Theory of Database Queries," Proc. PODS-88, 1988.
[16] A.K. Chandra and P.M. Merlin, “Optimal Implementation of Conjunctive Queries in Relational Databases,” Proc. Ninth Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing, pp. 77-90, 1977.
[17] S.K. Chang, "A Visual Language Compiler for Information Retrieval by Visual Reasoning," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1,136-1,149, Oct. 1990.
[18] S.K. Chang, M.F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "A framework for intelligent visual interface design for database systems," Proc. Int'l Workshop Interfaces to Database Systems (IDS92), R. Cooper, ed. pp. 377-391, Springer-Verlag, 1993.
[19] S.K. Chang, M.F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "Modeling users in an adaptive visual interface for database systems," J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 4,. pp. 65-75, 1993.
[20] S.K. Chang and Y. Deng, "Intelligent database retrieval by visual reasoning," Proc. 1990 IEEE COMPSAC Conf., pp. 459-464,Chicago, 1990.
[21] D.N. Chin, "KNOME: Modeling what the user know in UC," User Models in Dialogue Systems, A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, eds., pp. 74-107. Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[22] M.P. Consens and A.O. Mendelzon,“GraphLog: A visual formalism for real life recursion,” Proc. Ninth ACM Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 404-416, Apr. 1990.
[23] I. Cruz, “Doodle: A Visual Language for Object-Oriented Databases,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., 1992.
[24] I.F. Cruz, A.O. Mendelzon, and P.T. Wood, "G+: Recursive queries without recursion," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Expert Database Systems, pp. 355-368, 1988.
[25] R.N. Cuff, "On casual users," Int'l J. Man-Machine Studies, vol. 12, pp. 163-187, 1980.
[26] C. Date, An Introduction to Database Systems.Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[27] D. Harel, "On Visual Formalisms," Comm. ACM, May 1988, pp. 514-530.
[28] R. Hull and R. King, “Semantic Database Modelling: Survey, Applications, and Research Issues,” Computing Surveys, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 201-260, ACM, Sept. 1987.
[29] Y.E. Ioannidis and E. Wong,“Towards an algebraic theory of recursion,” Jour. Assoc. Comput. Mac. vol. 38, 1991, pp. 329-381.
[30] B. Jacobson, "The ultimate user interface," BYTE, pp. 175-182, 1992.
[31] M. Jarke and Y. Vassiliou, "A framework for choosing a database query language," ACM Computing Surveys, vol.17, no. 3, pp. 313-340, 1985.
[32] R. Kass and T. Finin, "The role of user models in cooperative interactive systems," Int'l J. Intelligent Systems, vol. 4, pp. 81-112, 1989.
[33] W. Kin,“A model of queries for object-oriented databases,” Proc. 15th Int’l Conf. Very Large Databases, pp. 423-432, 1989.
[34] User Models in Dialogue Systems, A. Kobsa, W. Wahlster, eds. Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[35] M. Kuntz and R. Melchert, "Pasta-3's graphical query language: Direct manipulation, cooperative queries, full expressive power," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 97-105,Amsterdam, 1989.
[36] J. Paredaens, J. Van den Bussche, M. Andries, M. Gemis, M. Gyssen, I. Thyssens, D. Van Gucht, V. Sarathy, and L. Saxton, "An overview of GOOD," Sigmod Record, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 25-31, 1992.
[37] J. Paredaens, P. Peelman, and L. Tanca, "G-Log: A declarative graphical query language," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. DOOD'91, pp. 108-128, 1991.
[38] E. Rich, "Stereotypes and user modeling," User Models in Dialogue Systems, A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, eds., pp. 35-51. Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[39] F. Staes, L. Tarantino, and B. Verdonk, "A logic-based approach for supporting queries in object-oriented databases," Object-Oriented Approach in Information Systems, F. Van Assche, B. Moulin, and C. Rolland, eds., pp. 193-209. NorthHolland, 1991.
[40] K. Tsuda, A. Yoshitaka, M. Hirakawa, M.. Tanaka, and T. Ichikawa, "Iconic browser: An iconic retrieval system for object-oriented databases," J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 59-76, 1990.
[41] J. Ullman, Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, vol. 1. Computer Science Press, 1988.
[42] W. Wahlster and A. Kobsa, "User models in dialogue systems," User Models in Dialogue Systems, A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, eds., pp. 4-34. Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[43] M.M. Zloof, "Query-by-example: A database language," IBM Syst. J., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 324-343, 1977.

Index Terms:
Visual query system, multiparadigmatic interaction, user model, adaptive visual interface, graph-based data model, heterogeneous databases.
Citation:
Tiziana Catarci, Shi-Kuo Chang, Maria F. Costabile, Stefano Levialdi, Giuseppe Santucci, "A Graph-Based Framework for Multiparadigmatic Visual Access to Databases," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 455-475, June 1996, doi:10.1109/69.506712
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.