This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Implementing Temporal Integrity Constraints Using an Active DBMS
August 1995 (vol. 7 no. 4)
pp. 566-582

Abstract—The paper proposes a general architecture for implementing temporal integrity constraints by compiling them into a set of active DBMS rules. The modularity of the design allows easy adaptation to different environments. Both differences in the specification languages and in the target rule systems can be easily accommodated. The advantages of this architecture are demonstrated on a particular temporal constraint compiler. This compiler allows automatic translation of integrity constraints formulated in Past Temporal Logic into rules of an active DBMS (in the current version of the compiler two active DBMS are supported: Starburst and INGRES). During the compilation the set of constraints is checked for the safe evaluation property. The result is a set of SQL statements that includes all the necessary rules needed for enforcing the original constraints. The rules are optimized to reduce the space overhead introduced by the integrity checking mechanism. There is no need for an additional runtime constraint monitor. When the rules are activated, all updates to the database that violate any of the constraints are automatically rejected (i.e., the corresponding transaction is aborted). In addition to straightforward implementation, this approach offers a clean separation of application programs and the integrity checking code.

[1] J. Chomicki,“History-less checking of dynamic integrity constraints,” IEEE Int’l Conf. Data Engineering,Phoenix Ariz, Feb. 1992.
[2] J. Chomicki,“Real-time integrity constraints,” Proc. 11th ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symp. Principles Database Systems, June 1992.
[3] J. Chomicki, “Efficient Checking of Temporal Integrity Constraints Using Bounded History Encoding,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 148–186, June 1995.
[4] A. Van Gelder and R.W. Topor, "Safety and Translation of Relational Calculus Queries," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 235-278, June 1991.
[5] International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Database Language SQL, Document ISO/IEC 9075:1992. (also ANSI X3.135-1992).
[6] J. Widom,R.J. Cochrane, and B.G. Lindsay,"Implementing set-oriented production rules as an extension to Starburst," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 1991.
[7] S. Ceri,J. Widom,“Deriving production rules for constraint maintenance,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 1990.
[8] D.M. Gabbay,I. Hodkinson,, and M. Reynolds,Temporal Logic Math. Foundations and Computational Aspects, vol. 1. Oxford Logic Guides, Oxford Univ. Press, 1994.
[9] H. Gallaire,J. Minker,, and J. Nicolas,“Logic and databases: A deductive approach,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 153-185, June 1984.
[10] M. Gertz,U.W. Lipeck,“Deriving integrity maintaining triggers from transition graphs,” Int’l Conf. Data Engineering, 1993.
[11] J.A. Blakeley, P. Larson, and F.W. Tompa, "Efficiently Updating Materialized Views," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf.,Washington, D.C., pp. 61-71, May 1986.
[12] I.S. Gupta,A. Mumick, and V.S. Subrahmanian,"Maintaining views incrementally," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 157-166,Portland, Ore., May 1993.
[13] A.P. Sistla and O. Wolfson,“Temporal triggers in active databases,” IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, June 1995.
[14] R. Stonebraker,A. Jhingran,J. Goh,, and S. Potamianos,“On rules, procedures, caching, and views in database systems,” ACM SIGMOD Int’l Conf. Management of Data, 1990.
[15] Z. Manna and A. Pnueli, The Temporal Logic of Reactive and Concurrent Systems. Springer-Verlag, 1991.
[16] I.S. Mumick,“Query optimization in deductive and relational databases,” PhD thesis, Stanford Univ., 1991.
[17] I.S. Mumick,S.J. Finkelstein,H. Pirahesh,, and R. Ramakrishnan,“Magic conditions,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles Database Systems, pp. 314-330,Nashville, Tenn., 1990.
[18] F. Bancilhon, D. Maier, Y. Sagiv, and J.D. Ullman, "Magic Sets and Other Strange Ways to Implement Logic Programs," Proc. Fifth ACM PODS Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp. 1-15, 1986.
[19] D. Toman and J. Chomicki,“Implementing temporal integrity constraints using an active DBMS,” Proc. RIDE’94 Active Database Systems,Houston, Tex., pp. 87-95, 1994.
[20] INGRES/SQL Reference Manual for Unix and VMS Operating Systems, Release 6.4. Ingres Corp., 1991.

Index Terms:
Temporal databases, integrity constraints, dynamic constraints, constraint checking.
Citation:
Jan Chomicki, David Toman, "Implementing Temporal Integrity Constraints Using an Active DBMS," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 566-582, Aug. 1995, doi:10.1109/69.404030
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.