This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Materialization
October 1994 (vol. 6 no. 5)
pp. 835-842

A new data abstraction, called Materialization, is introduced to model a situation that occurs frequently in the real world and has important implications for database design. Materialization is the relationship between two entity types, one that represents a conceptual object, for example, a TV Model, and one that represents its corresponding concrete objects, in this case, actual TV Sets. The Materialization construct is formally defined and contrasted with other well-known data abstractions. Its design implications are presented in terms of the entity-relationship model and its translation into a relational model. Guidelines are offered for the proper employment of this relationship in database design methodologies, and a discussion is provided of why this constitutes an important data modeling construct.

[1] R. J. Brachman, "What IS-A is and isn't: An analysis of taxonomic links in semantic networks,"IEEE Comput., pp. 30-36, Oct. 1983.
[2] M. Brodie, "Association: A database abstraction,"Proc. Entity-Relationship Conf., 1981.
[3] M. Brodie, "On the development of data models," in M. L. Brodie, J. Mylopoulos, and J. W. Schmidt, Eds.,On Conceptual Modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984, pp. 19-47.
[4] M. Brodie, "Database management: A survey," in M. L. Brodie and J. Mylopoulos, Eds.,On Knowledge Base Management Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986, pp. 201-218.
[5] M. Careyet al., "A data model and query language for EXODUS," inProc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. Management of Data, pp. 413-423, June 1988.
[6] R. Chaffin, D. J. Herrmann, and M. Winston, "An empirical taxonomy of part-whole relations: Effects of part-whole type on relation identification,"Language and Cognitive Processes, vol. 3, pp. 17-48, 1988.
[7] P. P. Chen, "The Entity-Relationship Model -- Towards a Unified View of Data,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar. 1976, pp. 9-36.
[8] E. F. Codd, "Extending the relational database model to capture more meaning,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 397-434, Dec. 1979.
[9] J. P. Davis and R. D. Bonnell, "A framework for constructing visual knowledge specifications in acquiring organizational knowledge,"Knowledge Acquisition, vol. 3, pp. 79-115, Mar. 1991.
[10] J. P. Davis and R. D. Bonnell, "Modeling semantics with concept abstraction in the EARL data model,"Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Entity-Relationship Approach, 1989, pp. 102-117.
[11] R. C. Goldstein and V. C. Storey, "Unravelling IS-A structures,"Inform. Syst. Res. (ISR), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 99-149, June 1992.
[12] R. Hull and R. King, "Semantics database modeling: Survey, applications, and research issues,"Comput. Surveys, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 201-260, Sept. 1987.
[13] H. F. Korth and A. Silberschatz,Database System Concepts, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
[14] N. M. Mattos, "Abstraction concepts: The basis for data and knowledge modeling,"Proc. E-R Conf., 1988.
[15] N. M. Mattos and M. Michels, "Modeling with KRISYS: The design process of DB applications reviewed,"Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Entity-Relationship Approach, 1989, pp. 159-173.
[16] R. Motschnig-Pitrik and J. Mylopoulos, "Class and instances,"Int. J. Intell. and Cooperative Syst., 1991.
[17] J. Peckham and F. Maryanski, "Semantic data models,"ACM Comput. Surveys. pp. 153-189, Sept. 1988.
[18] W. D. Potter and L. Kerschberg "A unified approach to modeling knowledge and data," in R. A. Meersman and A. C. Sernadas, Eds.,Data and Knowledge (DS-2). New York: Elsevier, 1988, pp. 265-291.
[19] W. D. Potter and R. P. Trueblood, "Traditional, semantic, and hypersemantic approaches to data modeling,"IEEE Comput., pp. 53-62, 1988.
[20] R. Reiter, "Towards a logical reconstruction of relational database theory," in M. L. Brodie, J. Mylopoulos, and J. W. Schmidt, Eds.,On Conceptual Modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984, pp. 191-233.
[21] E. A. Rundensteiner, "The role of AI in databases versus the role of database theory in AI: An opinion," in R. A. Meersman, Z. Shi, and C.-H. Kung, Eds.,Artificial Intelligence in Databases and Information Systems (DS-3). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990, pp. 233-252.
[22] L. K. Schubert, M. A. Papalaskaris, and J. Taugher, "Determining type, part, color, and time relationships,"IEEE Comput., pp. 53-60, Oct. 1983.
[23] M. Shaw, "The impact of modeling and abstraction concerns on modern programming languages," in M. L. Brodie, J. Mylopoulos, and J. W. Schmidt, Eds.,On Conceptual Modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984, pp. 19-47.
[24] J.M. Smith and D.C.P. Smith, "Database Abstractions: Aggregation and Generalization,"ACM Trans. Database Sys., June 1977, pp. 105-133.
[25] V. C. Storey, "Understanding semantic relationships,"Very Large Data Base J., (forthcoming 1993).
[26] V. C. Storey, "Relational database design based on the entity-relationship model,"Data Knowl. Eng., vol. 7, pp. 47-83, Nov. 1991.
[27] T. J. Teorey, D. Yang, and J. P. Fry, "A logical design methodology for relational databases using the extended entity-relationship model,"ACM Comput. Surveys, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 197-222, June 1986.
[28] D. Tsichritzis and F. Lochovsky,Data Models, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982.
[29] S. D. Urban and L. M. L. Delcambre, "An analysis of the structural, dynamic, and temporal aspects of semantic data models,"Proc. Int. Conf. Data Eng., 1986, pp. 382-389.
[30] B. Wegner, "The Object-Oriented Classification Paradigm," inResearch Directions in Object-Oriented Programming, B. Shriver and P. Wegner, eds., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987, pp. 479-560.
[31] M. E. Winston, R. Chaffin, and D. Herrmann, "A taxonomy of part-whole relations,"Cognitive Sci., vol. 11, pp. 417-444, 1987.

Index Terms:
data structures; entity-relationship modelling; relational databases; data abstraction; Materialization; database design; entity types; conceptual object; TV Model; entity-relationship model; relational model; data modeling construct
Citation:
R.C. Goldstein, V.C. Storey, "Materialization," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 835-842, Oct. 1994, doi:10.1109/69.317711
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.