This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Site and Query Scheduling Policies in Multicomputer Database Systems
August 1994 (vol. 6 no. 4)
pp. 609-619

We study run-time issues, such as site allocation and query scheduling policies, in executing read-only queries in a hierarchical, distributed memory, multicomputer system. The particular architecture considered is based on the hypercube interconnection. The data are stored in a base cube, which is controlled by a control cube and host node hierarchy. Input query trees are transformed into operation sequence trees, and the operation sequences become the units of scheduling. These sequences are scheduled dynamically at run-time. Algorithms for dynamic site allocation are provided. Several query scheduling policies that support interquery concurrency are also studied. Average query completion times and initiation delays are obtained for the various policies using simulations.

[1] H. Aueret al., "RDBM: A relational database machine."Inform. Syst., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 91-100, 1981.
[2] C. K. Baru and O. Frieder, "Database operations in a cube-connected multicomputer system,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 38, pp. 920-927, June 1989.
[3] C. K. Baru and S. Padmanabhan, "Join and data redistribution algorithms for hypercubes,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 5, pp. 161-168, Feb. 1993.
[4] C. K. Baru and P. Goel, "Squashed embedding of E-R schema graphs in hypercubes,"J. Parallel Distrib. Computing, vol. 8, pp. 340-348, Apr. 1990.
[5] A. Bataineh, F. Ozguner, and A. Sarwal, "Parallel Boolean operations for information retrieval,"Inform. Processing Lett., vol. 39, pp. 99-108, 1991.
[6] S. H. Bokhari, "On the mapping problem,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 207-214, Mar. 1981.
[7] S. W. Bollinger and S. F. Midkiff, "Processor and link assignment in multicomputers using simulated annealing,"Proc. Int. Conf. Parallel Processing, 1988, pp. 1-7.
[8] H. Boralet al., "Prototyping Bubba, a highly parallel database system,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 2, pp. 4-24, Mar. 1990.
[9] K. Bratbergsengen, "The development of the parallel database computer HC16-186,"Proc. 4th Conf. Hypercubes, Concurrent Comput., and Applic., 1989, pp. 173-180.
[10] D. K. Bradley and D. A. Reed, "Performance of the InteliPSC/2 input/output system,"Proc. 4th Conf. Hypercubes, Concurrent Comput., Applics., 1989, pp. 141-144.
[11] D. J. DeWitt, "DIRECT: A multiprocessor organization for supporting relational database management systems,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-28, no. 6, pp. 395-408, June 1979.
[12] DeWittet al., "The gamma database machine project,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 2, pp. 44-62, Mar. 1990.
[13] D. J. DeWitt, J. F. Naughton, and D. A. Schneider, "An evaluation of non-equijoin algorithms," inProc. 17th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, Sept. 1991, pp. 443-452.
[14] T. H. Dunigan, "Performance of a second generation hypercube," Tech. Rep. ORNL/TM-10881, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 1988.
[15] O. Frieder, "Multiprocessor algorithms for relational-database operators on hypercube systems,"IEEE Comput., vol. 23, pp. 13-28, Nov. 1990.
[16] O. Frieder and H. T. Siegelmann, "On the allocation of documents in information retrieval systems,"Proc. 14th ACM SIGIR, 1991, pp. 230-239.
[17] O. Frieder, V. A. Topkar, R. K. Karne, and A. K. Sood, "Experimentation with hypercube database engines,"IEEE Micro, vol. 12, pp. 42-56, Feb. 1992.
[18] S. Ganguly, W. Hasan, and R. Krishnamurthy, "Query optimization for parallel execution,"Procs. ACM SIGMOD, 1992, pp. 9-18.
[19] H. Hadimioglu and R. J. Flynn, "The architectural design of a tightly-coupled distributed hypercube file system,"Proc. 4th Conf. Hypercubes, Concurrent Comput., Applics., 1989, pp. 147-150.
[20] J. P. Hayes, T. N. Mudge, Q. F. Stout, S. Colley, and J. Palmer, "Architecture of a hypercube supercomputer,"IEEE Micro, vol. 6, pp. 653-660, Aug. 1986.
[21] J. P. Honget al., "A hypercube project and a simulator for a hypercube of computers,"Proc. 2nd Conf. Hypercube Multiprocessors, SIAM, Sept. 1986.
[22] InteliPSC Data Sheet, Order 280101-001, 1985.
[23] Y. E. Ioannidis and Y. C. Kang, "Randomized algorithms for optimizing large join queries," inProc. ACM SIGMOD-Int. Conf. Management of Data, pp. 312-321, May 1990.
[24] M. Kitsuregawa, H. Tanaka, and T. Moto-Oka, "Architecture and performance of the relational algebra machine, GRACE,"Proc. Int. Conf. Parallel Processing, Aug. 1984.
[25] M. Lakshmi and P. Yu, "Effectiveness of parallel joins,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 2, pp. 410-424, Dec. 1990.
[26] S.-Y. Lee and J. K. Aggarwal, "A mapping strategy for parallel processing,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-36, pp. 433-442, Apr. 1987.
[27] A. Liu and S. Chang, "Site selection in distributed query processing."Proc. 3rd Conf. Distrib. Computing Syst., 1982, pp. 7-12.
[28] T. Martin, K. Lam, and J. Russell, "An evaluation of site selection algorithms for distributed query processing,"Comput. J., vol. 33, pp. 61-70, 1990.
[29] B. L. Menezes, K. Thadani, A. G. Dale, and R. Jenevien, "Design of a HyperKYKLOS-based multiprocessor architecture for high-performance join operations,"Proc. 5th Int. Workshop Database Machines, 1987, pp. 88-101.
[30] D. Kirk and J.K. Strosnider, "SMART(Strategic Memory Allocation for Real-Time) Cache Design Using MIPS R3000,"Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 1990, pp. 322-330.
[31] E. R. Omiecinski and E. T. Lin, "Hash-based and index-based join algorithms for cube and ring connected multicomputers,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 1, pp. 329-343, Sept. 1989.
[32] E. R. Omiecinski and E. T. Lin, "The adaptive-hash join algorithms for a hypercube multicomputer,"IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 2, pp. 334-349, May 1992.
[33] R. P. Pargas, J. C. Peck, and A. L. Pugh, "Use of semi-join programs for join queries on a hypercube,"Proc. 4th Conf. on Hypercubes, Concurrent Comput., and Applics., 1989, pp. 457-462.
[34] S. Pramanik and D. Vineyard, "Optimizing join queries in distributed databases,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, Sept. 1988.
[35] J. C. Peterson, J. O. Tuazon, D. Lieberman, and M. Pniel, "The MARK III hypercube-ensemble concurrent computer,"Proc. Int. Conf. Parallel Processing, 1985, pp. 71-73.
[36] J. L. Pfaltz, J. C. French, and S. H. Son, "Parallel set operators,"Proc. 4th Conf. Hypercubes, Concurrent Computers, and Applics., 1989, pp. 481-486.
[37] S. Y. W. Su,Database Machines: Concepts and Techniques. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
[38] M. Stonebraker, "The case for shared nothing,"Data Eng., vol. 9, Mar. 1986.
[39] V. A. Topkar, O. Frieder, and A. K. Sood, "Duplicate removal on hypercube engines: An experimental analysis,"Parallel Computing, vol. 17, pp. 845-971, Oct. 1991.
[40] E. Upchurchet al., "Parallel joins on the Mark III hypercube,"Proc. 4th Conf. Hypercubes, Concurrent Comput., Applics., 1989, pp. 453-456.
[41] B. Wagar, "Hyperquicksort: A fast sorting algorithm for hypercubes,"Proc. 2nd Conf. Hypercube Multiprocessors, Sept. 1986.
[42] A. Witkowski, K. Chandrakumar, and G. Macchio, "Concurrent IO system for the hypercube multiprocessor,"Proc. 3rd Conf. on Hypercube Concurrent Comput. and Applics., SIAM, Jan. 1988.
[43] C. Yu, C. Chang, D. Templeton, and E. Lund, "On the design of a distributed query processing algorithm,"Proc. ACM SIGMOD, 1983, pp. 30-39.

Index Terms:
distributed databases; distributed memory systems; parallel algorithms; multiprocessing programs; hypercube networks; database theory; query scheduling policies; multicomputer database systems; run-time issues; site allocation; read-only queries; hypercube interconnection; query trees; operation sequence trees; dynamic site allocation; interquery concurrency; query completion times; initiation delays
O. Frieder, C.K. Baru, "Site and Query Scheduling Policies in Multicomputer Database Systems," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 609-619, Aug. 1994, doi:10.1109/69.298176
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.