This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
An Expectation-Driven Response Understanding Paradigm
June 1994 (vol. 6 no. 3)
pp. 430-443

This paper describes a model that can account for ad hoc user-responses to argument interrogative type of system-initiated questions. Successful implementation of the model can provide an alternative solution that is more effective than the menu-driven approach that has been proposed as a meager solution to enable the system to ask a question to the user. The proposed model assumes that when the system asks a question, it maintains an expectation of the potential answers. The system then uses the expectation as the focus to perform the most likely interpretation of the user's response. Without using such a focus the interpretation process could be unbounded. The interpretation process is mapped into a heuristic search problem. The interpretation process results in identifying a particular expectation-response relationship type, which the system can use to tailor its response strategy with respect to the given user-response. A prototype has been constructed to demonstrate the soundness of the proposed model.

[1] J. F. Allen and C. R. Perrault, "Analyzing intention in utterances,"Artificial Intell., vol. 15, pp. 143-178, 1980.
[2] M. Anderson, "Response evaluation in a mixed-initiative dialogue manager via computation of conceptual distance," M.S. thesis, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 1990.
[3] M. Anderson and D. G. Shin, "Integrating an intelligent interface with a relational database system for two-way man-machine communication," inProc. Developing and Managing Expert System Programs and Projects. Alexandria, VA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991.
[4] D. G. Bobrow et al., "GUS: A frame-driven dialog system,"Artificial Intell., vol. 8, pp. 155-173, 1977.
[5] R. J. Brachman and J. G. Schmolze, "An overview of the KL-ONE knowledge representation system,"Cognitive Sci., vol. 9, pp. 171-216, 1985.
[6] S. Carberry, "Modeling the user's plans and goals,"Computational Linguistics, vol. 14, pp. 23-37, 1988.
[7] S. Carberry, "Plan recognition and its use in understanding dialog," inUser Models in Dialog Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[8] J. Carbonell, "AI in CAI: An artificial-intelligence approach to computer-assisted instruction,"IEEE Trans. on Man-Machine Syst., vol. MMS-11, no. 4, pp. 190-202, 1970.
[9] E. Charniak, "Motivation analysis, abductive unification, and nonmonotonic equality,"Artificial Intell., vol. 34, pp. 275-295, 1988.
[10] E. Charniak and D. McDermott,Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1985, p. 147.
[11] D. N. Chin "KNOME: Modeling what the user knows in UC," inUser Models in Dialog Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[12] E. F. Codd, "How about recently?" in B. Shneiderman, Ed.,Databases: Improving Usability and Responsiveness. New York: Academic Press, 1978 (English dialog with relational databases using RENDEZVOUS Version 1).
[13] P. Cohen and R. Perrault, "Elements of a plan-based theory of speech acts,"Cognitive Sci., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 177-212, 1979.
[14] R. E. Cullingford, "SAM," in R. C. Schank and C. K. Riesbeck, Eds.,Inside Computer Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1981.
[15] R. Dutaet al., Development of the PROSPECTOR Consultation System for Mineral Exploration, Ann. Rep., SRI Projects 5821 and 6415, SRI Int., Inc., Menlo Park, CA, 1978.
[16] H. Grice, "Logic and conversation," in P. Cole and J. Morgan, Eds.,Syntax and Semantics. London: Academic Press, 1975.
[17] B. J. Grosz, D. E. Appelt, P. A. Martin, and F. C. N. Pereira, "TEAM: An experiment in the design of transportable natural-language interfaces,"Artificial Intell., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 173-243, 1987.
[18] J. R. Hobbs, "Interpretation as abduction," inProc. 26th Ann. Meeting of the Assoc. Computational Linguistics, Buffalo, NY, 1988.
[19] G. Jakobsonet al., "An intelligent database assistant,"IEEE Expert, pp. 65-79, Summer 1986.
[20] J. R. Josephson, B. Chandrasekaran, J. W. Smith, and M. C. Tanner, "A mechanism for forming composite explanatory hypotheses,"IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybernetics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 445-454, 1987.
[21] J. S. Kaplan, "Cooperative responses from a portable natural language query system,"Artificial Intell., vol. 19, pp. 165-187, 1982.
[22] J. J. Katz and J. A. Fordor, "The structure of a semantic theory,"Language, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 170-210, 1963.
[23] C. Kellogg, "From data management to knowledge management,"Comput., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 75-84, 1986.
[24] J. M. Levine, "PRAGMA: A flexible bidirectional dialogue system," inProc. 8th Nat. Conf. Artificial Intell., Boston, 1990.
[25] D. J. Litman and J. F. Allen, "A plan recognition model for subdialogues in conversation,"Cognitive Sci., vol. 11, pp. 163-200, 1987.
[26] K. E. Lochbaum, B. J. Groz, and C. L. Sidner, "Models of plans to support communication: An initial report," inProc. 8th Nat. Conf. Artificial Intell., Boston, 1990.
[27] K. McCoy, "Highlighting a user model to respond to misconception," inUser Models in Dialog Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[28] K. R. McKeown, "Discourse strategies for generating natural-language text,"Artificial Intell., vol. 27, pp. 1-41, 1985.
[29] G. D. Moerdler, K. R. MeKeown, and J. R. Ensor, "Building natural language interfaces for rule-based expert systems," inProc. IJCAI, 1987, pp. 682-687.
[30] J. Moore and W. R. Swartout, "Pointing: A way toward explanation dialogue," inProc. 8th Nat. Conf. Artificial Intell., Boston, 1990.
[31] N. Nilsson,Principles of Artificial Intelligence. Palo Alto, CA: Tioga, 1980.
[32] C. Paris, "The use of explicit user models in a generation system for tailoring answers to the user's level of expertise," inUser Models in Dialog Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[33] M. E. Pollack, "Some requirements for a model of the plan inference process in conversation," inCommunication Failure and Dialogue and Discourse. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987, pp. 245-256.
[34] A. Quilici, "The correction machine: Formulating explanations for user misconceptions, " inProc. 11th Int. Joint Conf. Artificial Intell., Detroit, 1989.
[35] H. Yamada et al., "A Microprogrammable Real-Time Image Processor,"IEEE J. Solid State Circuitry, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan. 1988, pp. 216- 223.
[36] D.-G. Shin, "Lk: A language for capturing real world meangings of the stored data," inProc. ACM 7th Int. Conf. Data Eng., Kobe, Japan, Apr. 1991.
[37] Sowa, J.F.,Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1984. (Conceptual Graphs)
[38] J. Spitz, "Collection and analysis of data from real users: Implications for speech recognition/understanding systems." inProc. DARPA Speech and Natural Language Workshop, 1990.
[39] R. M. Weischedel and N. K. Sondheimer, "Meta-rules as a basis for processing ill-formed input," inCommunication Failure and Dialogue and Discourse. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987.
[40] R. Wilensky, "PAM," in R. C. Schank, and C. K. Riesbeck, Eds.,Inside Computer Understanding, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1981.

Index Terms:
interactive systems; natural language interfaces; human factors; user modelling; expectation-driven response understanding; argument interrogative questions; menu-driven approach; expectation; user response interpretation; heuristic search problem; expectation-response relationship; response strategy; natural language interface; user modelling
Citation:
D.-G. Shin, "An Expectation-Driven Response Understanding Paradigm," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 430-443, June 1994, doi:10.1109/69.334859
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.