This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Spatial SQL: A Query and Presentation Language
February 1994 (vol. 6 no. 1)
pp. 86-95

Recently, attention has been focused on spatial databases, which combine conventional and spatially related data, such as geographic information systems, CAD/CAM, or VLSI. A language has been developed to query such spatial databases. It recognizes the significantly different requirements of spatial data handling and overcomes the inherent problems of the application of conventional database query languages. The spatial query language has been designed as a minimal extension to the interrogative part of SQL and distinguishes from previously designed SQL extensions by: the preservation of SQL concepts; the high-level treatment of spatial objects; and the incorporation of spatial operations and relationships. It consists of two components, a query language to describe what information to retrieve and a presentation language to specify how to display query results. Users can ask standard SQL queries to retrieve nonspatial data based on nonspatial constraints, use Spatial SQL commands to inquire about situations involving spatial data, and give instructions in the Graphical Presentation Language, GPL to manipulate or examine the graphical presentation.

[1] "X3.135-1986 American National Standard Database Language SQL," American National Standards Institute, Jan. 1986.
[2] G. Ariav, "A temporal oriented data model,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 499-527, Dec. 1986.
[3] F. Bancilhon, S. Cluet, and C. Delobel, "A query language for the O2object-oriented database," inProc. Second Workshop Database Programming Languages, 1989.
[4] R. Barrera and A. Buchmann, "Schema definition and query language for a geographical database system,"IEEE Trans. Comp. Architecture: Pattern Analysis and Image Database Management, vol. 11, pp. 250-256, 1981.
[5] R. Berman and M. Stonebraker, "Geo-Quel, a system for the manipulation and display of geographic data,"ACM Comp. Graphics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 186-191, 1977.
[6] J. Bertin,Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1983.
[7] G. von Bültzingsloewen, "Translating and optimizing SQL queries having aggregates," inProc. 13th Int. Conf. VLDB, Brighton, England, 1987, pp. 235-243.
[8] W. Burton, "Logical and physical data types in geographic information systems,"Geo-Processing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 167-181, 1979.
[9] D. Chamberlinet al., "Sequel 2: A unified approach to data definition, manipulation, and control,"IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 560-575, Nov. 1976
[10] S. K. Chang and T. Kunii, "Pictorial database systems,"Computer, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 13-21, Nov. 1981.
[11] N. S. Chang and K. S. Fu, "Query-by-pictorial-example,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-6, no. 6, pp. 519-524, Nov. 1980.
[12] E.F. Codd, "Fatal flaws in SQL,"Datamation, vol. 34, no. 16, Aug. 1988.
[13] N. Cox, B. Alfred, and D. Rhind, "A relational data base system and a proposal for a geographic data type,"Geo-Processing, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 217-229, 1979.
[14] C. J. Date, "`Defining data types in a database language (Alternative Title: A proposal for adding date and time support to SQL),"SIGMOD Rec., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 53-76, June 1988.
[15] M. Egenhofer, "An extended SQL syntax to treat spatial objects," inProc. 2nd Int. Seminar Trends and Concerns of Spatial Sciences, Fredericton, NB, Canada, 1987, pp. 83-95.
[16] M. Egenhofer, "Graphical representation of spatial objects: an object-oriented view," Tech. Rep. 83, Department of Surveying Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME, July 1988.
[17] M. Egenhofer, "Spatial query languages," Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME, 1989.
[18] M. Egenhofer, "A formal definition of binary topological relationships," inProc. 3rd Int. Conf. Foundations of Data Organization and Algorithms, Paris, France, 1989, LNCS vol. 367, New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 457-472.
[19] M. Egenhofer, "Interaction with geographic information systems via spatial queries,"J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 389-413, 1990.
[20] M. Egenhofer, "Extending SQL for cartographic display,"Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 230-245, 1991.
[21] M. Egenhofer and A. Frank, "Towards a spatial query language: User interface considerations," inProc. 14th Int. Conf. VLDB, Long Beach, CA, 1988, pp. 124-133.
[22] M. Egenhofer and R. Franzosa, "Point-set topological spatial relations,"Int. J. Geographical Inform. Systems, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 161-174, 1991.
[23] M. Egenhofer and J. Herring, "A mathematical framework for the definition of topological relationships, " inProc. 4th Int. Symp. Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, Switzerland, 1990, pp. 814-819.
[24] H.-D. Ehrich, F. Lohmann, K. Neumann, and I. Ramm, "A database language for scientific map data,"Geologisches Jahrbuch. vol. A104, pp. 139-152, 1988.
[25] D. W. Embley and G. Nagy, "Toward a high-level integrated image database system," Image Processing Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tech. Rep., Troy, NY, 1986.
[26] D. Fishmanet al., "Iris: An object-oriented database management system,"ACM Trans. Office Inform. Syst., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 48-69, Jan. 1986.
[27] A. Frank, "Applications of DBMS to land information systems," inProc. 7th Int. Conf. VLDB, Cannes, France, 1981, pp. 448-453.
[28] A. Frank, "Mapquery--Database query language for retrieval of geometric data and its graphical representation,"ACM Comp. Graphics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 199-207, July 1982.
[29] A. Frank, "Computer assisted cartography-Graphics or geometry,"J. Surveying Eng., vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 159-168, Aug. 1984.
[30] A. Frank, "Requirements for a database management system for a GIS,"Photogrammetric Eng.&Remote Sensing, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1557-1564, Nov. 1988.
[31] H. Freeman and J. Ahn, "On the problem of placing names in a geographic map,"Int. J. Pattern Recogn. and Artificial Intell., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 121-140, 1987.
[32] M. Friedell, J. Barnett, and D. Kramlich, "Context-sensitive, graphic presentation of information,"ACM Comp. Graphics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 181-188, July 1982.
[33] A. Go, M. Stonebraker, and C. Williams, "An approach to implementing a geo-data system," Electronics Res. Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA, Tech. Rep., Memo ERL-M529, 1975.
[34] O. Guenther and A. Buchmann, "Research issues in spatial databases,"SIGMOD Rec., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 61-68, 1990.
[35] R. Güting, "Geo-relational algebra: a model and query language for geometric database systems," inProc. Int. Conf. Extending Database Technology, Venice, Italy, 1988, LNCS vol. 303. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 506-527.
[36] C. F. Herot, "Spatial management of data,"ACM TODS, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 493-514, 1980.
[37] J. Herring, "TIGRIS: topologically integrated geographic information systems," inProc. AUTO-CARTO 8, Baltimore, MD, 1987, pp. 282-291.
[38] J. Herring, R. Larsen, and J. Shivakumar, "Extensions to the SQL language to support spatial analysis in a topological data base," inProc. GIS/LIS '88, San Antonio, TX, 1988, pp. 741-750.
[39] D. Hudson, "Combined Spatial/II and RDB database operation: query coordination and optimization strategies," Department of Surveying Engineering, Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME, Tech. Rep., 1988.
[40] K. Ingram and W. Phillips, "Geographic information processing using a SQL-based query language," inProc. AUTO-CARTO 8, Baltimore, MD, 1987, pp. 326-335.
[41] J. Jackson, "Developing an effective human interface for geographic information systems using metaphors," inProc. ACSM-ASPRS Annual Conv., Denver, CO, 1990, pp. 117-125.
[42] W. Kainz, "Spatial relationships--Topology versus order," inProc. 4th Int. Symp. Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, Switzerland, 1990, pp. 814-819.
[43] T. Keating, W. Phillips, and K. Ingram, "An integrated topologic database design for geographic information systems,"Photogrammetric Eng.&Remote Sensing, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1399-1402, Oct. 1987.
[44] V. Linnemann, K. Kuespert, and P. Dadam,et al., "Design and implementation of an extensible database management system supporting user-defined data types and functions,"VLDB, 1988.
[45] G. Lohman, J. Stoltzfus, A. Benson, M. Martin, and A. Cardenas, "Remotely-sensed geophysical databases: experience and implications for generalized DBMS," inProc. SIGMOD 83, San Jose, CA, 1983, pp. 146-160.
[46] R. Lorie and A. Meier, "Using relational dbms for geographical databases,"Geo-Processing, vol. 2, pp. 243-257, 1984.
[47] R. Lorie and H.-J. Schek, "On dynamically defined complex objects and SQL," inProc. 2nd Int. Workshop Object-Oriented Database Syst., Springer LNCS 334, 1988.
[48] W. S. Luk and S. Kloster, "ELFS: English language from SQL,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 447-472, Dec. 1986.
[49] D. McKeown, "MAPS: The organization of a spatial database system using imagery, terrain, and map data," Dept. of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, Tech. Rep. CMU-CS-83-136, 1983.
[50] J. Ong, D. Fogg, and M. Stonebraker, "Implementation of data abstraction in the relational database system INGRES,"SIGMOD Rec., vol. 14, no. 1, Mar. 1984.
[51] B. C. Ooi, R. Sacks-Davis, and K. McDonell, "Extending a DBMS for geographic applications, " inProc. IEEE 5th Int. Conf. Data Eng., Los Angeles, CA, 1989, pp. 590-597.
[52] N. Roussopoulos, C. Faloutsos, and T. Sellis, "An efficient pictorial database system for PSQL,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 630-638, May 1988.
[53] N. Roussopoulos and D. Leifker, "Direct spatial search on pictorial databases using packed R-trees," inProc. ACM SIGMOD, Austin, TX, May 1985.
[54] N. Sarda, "Extensions to SQL for historical databases,"IEEE Trans. Knowledge Data Eng., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 220-230, June 1990.
[55] A. Sikeler, "Examination of storage structures for 3-dimensional objects." (in German). Universität Kaiserslautem, Tech. Rep., 1985.
[56] T. Smith and A. Frank, "Very large spatial databases: Report from the specialist meeting,"J. Visual Languages Computing, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 291-309, 1990.
[57] R. Snodgrass, "The temporal query language TQuel,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 12, no. 2, June 1987.
[58] D. Steiner, M. Egenhofer, and A. Frank, "An object-oriented cartographic output package, " inProc. ASPRS-ACSM Annual Conv., Baltimore, MD, 1989, pp. 104-113.
[59] M. Stonebraker, B. Rubenstein, and A. Guttman, "Application of abstract data types and abstract indices to CAD databases," inProc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Eng. Design Applications, San Jose, CA, 1983, pp. 107-113.
[60] M. Stonebraker,et al., "The design and implementation of INGRES,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 1, no. 3, Sept. 1976.
[61] C. D. Tomlin,Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modeling. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990.
[62] A. Westlake and I. Kleinschmidt, "The implementation of area and membership retrievals in point geography using SQL," inProc. 5th Int. Conf. Statistical and Scientific Database Management, Charlotte, NC, 1990, LNCS vol. 420, New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 200-218.
[63] M. M. Zloof, "Query-by-example: A database language,"IBM Syst. J., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 324-343, 1977.

Index Terms:
query languages; visual databases; query processing; spatial data structures; Spatial SQL; query and presentation language; spatial databases; spatially related data; spatial data handling; database query languages; spatial query language; SQL extensions; high-level treatment; spatial objects; presentation language; standard SQL queries; nonspatial data; Graphical Presentation Language; graphical presentation
Citation:
M.J. Egenhofer, "Spatial SQL: A Query and Presentation Language," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 86-95, Feb. 1994, doi:10.1109/69.273029
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.