This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Integrating Heuristic Knowledge and Optimization Models for Communication Network Design
December 1993 (vol. 5 no. 6)
pp. 999-1017

A method is developed for integrating heuristic design knowledge with optimization models to create a tool for the topological design of computer communication networks. Design choices are based on suggestions from optimization models, as well as heuristic knowledge, which interact through a blackboard. A truth maintenance system (TMS) records justification for current design choices, as well as promising alternatives. A dependency-directed backtracking mechanism works with the TMS to choose other alternatives as warranted. This hybrid tool can consider a wider range of design requirements than is possible using one type of knowledge alone, is flexible in handling variations in these requirements, and has a modular structure which facilitates incremental refinement. Computational results on separate networks show it is effective in identifying good low-cost solutions.

[1] A. Agarwal and R. E. Barlow, "A survey of network reliability and domination theory,"Operat. Res., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 478-492, 1984.
[2] M. O. Ball, "Complexity of network reliability computations,"Networks, vol. 10, 1980.
[3] R. Balzer, L. D. Erman, P. E. London, and C. Williams, "Hearsay III: A domain-independent framework for expert systems,"Proc. AAAI, 1980.
[4] M. Bartusch, R. H. Mohring, and M. J. Radermacher, "Design aspects of an advanced model oriented DSS for scheduling problems in civil engineering,"Decis. Support Syst., vol. 5, no. 4, 1989.
[5] I. Bockenholt, M. Both, and W. Gaul, "A knowledge based system for supporting data analysis problems,"Decis. Support Syst., vol. 5, no. 4, 1989.
[6] R. Bellman, "Dynamic programming treatment of the travelling salesman problem,"J. Assoc. Comput. Mach., vol. 9, pp. 61-63, 1962.
[7] R. H. Bonczek, C. W. Holsapple, and A. B. Whinston,Foundations of Decision Support Systems. New York: Academic, 1981, pp. 11- 17.
[8] R. W. Blanning, "An entity relationship approach to model management,"Decis. Support Syst., vol. 2, pp. 65-72, 1986.
[9] R. W. Blanning, "A relational theory of model management," inDecision Support Systems: Theory and Applications, C. W. Holsapple and A. B. Whinston, Eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
[10] R. R. Boorstyn and H. Frank, "Large scale network topological optimization,"IEEE Trans. Commun., pp. 29-47, Jan. 1979.
[11] C. L. Chang and R. C. T. Lee,Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem Proving. New York: Academic, 1973.
[12] G. Dantzig,Linear Programming and Extensions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1963.
[13] R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan, and E. H. Shortliffe, "Production rules as a representation for a knowledge-based consultation program,"Arrifcial Intell., vol. 8, no. 1, 1977.
[14] D. R. Dolk and B. R. Konsynski, "Knowledge representation for management systems,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-10, Nov. 1984.
[15] J. Doyle, "A truth maintenance system,"Artificial Intell., 1979.
[16] R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, K. Konolige, and R. Reboh, "A computer based consultant for mineral exploration," Tech. Rep. SRI Internat., Sept. 1979.
[17] A. Dutta and A. Basu, "An artificial intelligence approach to model management in decision support systems,"IEEE Computer, pp. 89- 97, Sept. 1984.
[18] L.D. Erman et al., "The Hearsay-II Speech Understanding System: Integrating Knowledge to Resolve Uncertainty,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 1980, pp. 213-253.
[19] S. Even, "An algorithm for determining whether the connectivity of a graph is at-least K,"SIAM J. Comput., vol. 4, pp. 393-396, Sept. 1975.
[20] H. Frank, I. T. Frisch, and W. Chou, "Topological considerations in the design of the ARPA computer network," inConf. Rec. 1970 Join Comput. Conf., AFIPS Conf. Proc., vol. 36. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1970.
[21] L. Fratta, M. Gerla, and L. Kleinrock, "The flow deviation method: An approach to store forward communication network design,"Networks, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 97-133, 1973.
[22] B. Gavish and K. Altinkemer, "Backbone network design tools with economic tradeoffs,"ORSA J. Comput., to be published.
[23] B. Gavish and S. L. Hantler, "An algorithm for optimal route selection in SNA networks,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-31, pp. 1154-1161, 1983.
[24] M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson,Computers and Intractability: A Guide to Theory of NP-Completeness. San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1979.
[25] B. Gavish and I. Neumann, "A system for routing and capacity assignment in computer communication networks,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-37, pp. 360-366, 1989.
[26] R. Garfinkel and G. Nemhauser,Integer ProgrammingNew York: Wiley, 1972.
[27] S. Gass,Linear Programming. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969, pp. 227-228.
[28] A. Geoffrion, "Introduction to structured modeling,"Management Sci., vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 547-588, May 1987.
[29] M. Gerla, "The design of store and forward networks for computer communications," Ph.D Dissertation, School. Eng. Appl. Sci., Univ. California, Los Angeles, Jan. 1973.
[30] M. Gerla, "A cut saturation algorithm for topological design of packet switched communication networks,"Proc. Nat. Telecommun. Conf., Dec. 1974.
[31] M. Gerla and L. Kleinrock, "On the topological design of distributed computer networks,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 25, pp. 48-60, Jan. 1977.
[32] H. J. Greenberg, "A natural language discourse model to explain linear programming models and solutions,"Decis. Support Syst., vol. 3, no. 4, 1987.
[33] F. Hayes-Roth and V. R. Lesser, "Focus of attention in the hearsay-II system,"Proc. IJCAI 5, 1977.
[34] C. W. Holsapple and A. B. Whinston, "Artificially intelligent decision support systems-Criteria for tool selection," inDecision Support Systems: Theory and Application. C. W. Holsapple and A. B. Whinston, Eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
[35] R. Krishnan, "A logic modelling language for automatic model construction,"Decis. Support Syst., vol. 6, 1990.
[36] P. Kubat, "Estimation of reliability for computer communication networks-Simulation/analytic approach,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-37, Sept. 1989.
[37] V. O. K. Li and J. A. Sylvester, "Performance analysis of networks with unreliable components,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-32, pp. 1105-1110, 1984.
[38] J. McDermott, "RI: A rule based configurer of computer systems,"Artificial Intell., vol. 19, pp. 39-88, 1982.
[39] V. M. Malhotra, M. P. Kumar, and S. N. Maheswari, "AnO(V3
[40] D. A. McAllester, "An outlook on truth maintenance," Report AIM- 551,Artificial Intell. Lab., MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1977.
[41] D. McDermott and J. Doyle, "Non-monotonic logic I,"Artificial Intell., vol. 13, no. 1, 1980.
[42] M. Minsky, "A framework for representing knowledge," in The Psychology of Computer Vision, P. H. Winston, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.
[43] C. L. Monma and D. D. Sheng, "Backbone network design and performance analysis: A methodology for packet switching networks,"IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. SAC-4, pp. 946-965, Sept. 1986.
[44] W. A. Muhanna and R. A. Pick, "Composite models in SYMMS," inProc. 21st Annu. Hawaii Int. Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 1988, pp. 418-427.
[45] F. H. Murphy and E. A. Stohr, "An intelligent system for formulating linear programs,"Decis. Support Syst., vol. 3, no. 1, 1986.
[46] M. Ju. Ng and D. B. Hoang, "Joint optimization of capacity and flow assignment in a packet switched communication network,"IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-35, pp. 202-209, Feb. 1987.
[47] M. R. Quillian, "Semantic Memory," inSemantic Information Processing, M. Minsky, Ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968.
[48] A. Rosenthal and A. Goldner, "Smallest Augmentations to Biconnect a graph,"SIAM J. Comput., vol. 6, no. 1, Mar. 1977.
[49] V. R. Saksena, "Topological analysis of packet networks,"IEEE Trans. Select. Areas Commun., Oct. 1989.
[50] E. H. Shortliffe,Computer Based Medical Consultation: MYCIN. New York: Elsevier, 1976.
[51] A. M. R. Smith, L. S. Lee, and D. J. Hand, "Interactive user-friendly interfaces to statistical packages,"Comput. J., vol. 26, 1983.
[52] J. D. Spragins, "A fast algorithm for computing availability in networks with dependent failures," inProc. IEEE Infocom 84, San Francisco, CA, 1984, pp. 36-42.
[53] K. Steiglitz, P. Weiner, and D. J. Kleitman, "The design of minimum cost survivable networks,"IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory, vol. CT-16, pp. 455-460, 1969.
[54] S. Ueno, Y. Kajitani, and H. Wada, "Minimum augmentation of a tree to a K-edge-connected graph,"Networks, vol. 18, pp. 19-25, 1988.
[55] U. Schumacher, "An algorithm for construction of aK-connected graph with minimum number of edges and quasiminimal diameter,"Nerworks, vol. 14, 1984.
[56] R. Sprague and E. D. Carlson,Building Effective Decision Support Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
[57] R. M. Stallman and G. J. Sussman, "Forward reasoning and dependency-directed backtracking in a system for computer-aided circuit analysis,"Artificial Intell., vol. 9, no. 2, 1977.
[58] G.J. Sussman and R.M. Stallman, "Heuristic Techniques in Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis."IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, Vol. CAS-22. Nov. 1975, pp. 857- 865.
[59] R. Van Slyke and H. Frank, "Network reliability analysis: Part I,"Networks, vol. 1, pp. 139-172, 1971.
[60] R. S. Wilkov, "Analysis and design of reliable computer networks,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-20, no. 3, pp. 670-678, June 1972.
[61] P. M. Winston,Artificial Intelligence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
[62] B. Yaged, "Minimum cost routing for static network models,"Networks, vol. 1, pp. 139-172, 1971.

Index Terms:
topological design; optimization models; communication network design; heuristic design knowledge; computer communication networks; truth maintenance system; TMS; justification; dependency-directed backtracking mechanism; hybrid tool; modular structure; incremental refinement; blackboard; blackboard architecture; CAD; computer networks; decision support systems; knowledge based systems; telecommunications computing; truth maintenance
A. Dutta, "Integrating Heuristic Knowledge and Optimization Models for Communication Network Design," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 999-1017, Dec. 1993, doi:10.1109/69.250088
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.