This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Rule-Based Consistency Enforcement for Knowledge-Based Systems
February 1993 (vol. 5 no. 1)
pp. 52-64

A rule-based approach for the automatic enforcement of consistency constraints is presented. In contrast to existing approaches that compile consistency checks into application programs, the approach centralizes consistency enforcement in a separate module called a knowledge-base management system. Exception handlers for constraint violations are represented as rule entities in the knowledge base. For this purpose, a new form of production rule called the activation pattern controlled rule is introduced: in contrast to classical forward chaining schemes, activation pattern controlled rules are triggered by the intent to apply a specific operation but not necessarily by the result of applying this operation. Techniques for implementing this approach are discussed, and experiments in speeding up the system performance are described. Furthermore, an argument is made for more tolerant consistency enforcement strategies, and how they can be integrated into the rule-based approach to consistency enforcement is discussed.

[1] D. Badal and G. Popek, "Cost performance analysis of semantic integrity validation methods," inProc. ACM-SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, Boston, 1979, pp. 109-115.
[2] P. Bernstein and B. Blaustein, "Fast methods for testing quantified relational calculus expressions," inProc. ACM-SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, Orlando, 1982, pp. 39-50.
[3] A. Borgida, "Language features for flexible handling of exceptions in information systems,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., Dec. 1985.
[4] M. L. Brodie, "Knowledge base management systems: Discussions from the working group," inProc. 1st Int. Workshop on Expert Database Syst., Oct. 1984.
[5] L. Brownston et al.,Programming Expert Systems in OPS5, An Introduction to Rule-Based Programming, Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1985, Chapter 4, pp. 161- 164.
[6] O. P. Buneman and E. K. Clemons, "Efficiently monitoring relational databases,"Trans. Database Syst., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 368-382, 1979.
[7] D. Cohen, "Compiling Complex Database Transition Triggers,"Proc. 1989 ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, ACM Press, New York, 1989. Published as a special issue, ofSIGMOD Record, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1989, pp. 225-234.
[8] B. Czejdoet al., "Semantics of update operations for an extended entity-relationship Model," inProc. ACM Computer Science Conf., 1988, pp. 178-187.
[9] J. de Kleer, "An assumption-based TMS,"Artificial Intell., vol. 28, pp. 127-162, 1986.
[10] H. Decker, "Integrity enforcement on deductive databases," inProc. First Int. Conf. on Expert Data Base Systems, 1987, pp. 381-396.
[11] C. Eick, R. Kochhar, and S. Kumar, "DALI - A knowledge base management system," inProc. First Int. Conf. on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence, Tullahoma, 1988, pp. 837-846.
[12] C. Eick and T. Raupp, "Towards a formal semantics and inference rules for conceptual data models,"Data Knowl. Eng., vol. 6, pp. 297-311, July 1991.
[13] C. Eick, J. Liu, and P. Werstein, "Integration of rules into a knowledge base management system," inProc. First Int. IEEE Conf. on Systems Integration, Morristown, Apr. 1990.
[14] Filman, R.E., "Reasoning with Worlds and Truth Maintenance in a Knowledge-Based Programming Environment,"Comm. ACM, Vol. 31, No. 4, Apr. 1988, pp. 382-401.
[15] C. Forgy, "RETE: A fast algorithm for the many patterns/many objects pattern matching problem,"Artif. Intell., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-37, 1982.
[16] A. Gupta, C. Forgy, and A. Newell, "High-Speed Implementations of Rule-Based Systems,"ACM Trans. Computer Systems, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1989, pp. 119-146.
[17] L. Henschen, W. McCune, and S. Naqvi: "Compiling constraint checking programs from first-order formulas," in H. Gallaire,Advances in Data Bases. New York: Plenum, 1984, pp. 145-169.
[18] A. Hsu, and T. Imielinski, "Integrity checking for multiple updates," inProc. ACM-SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, Austin, 1985, pp. 152-168.
[19] "Concepts and terminology for the conceptual schema and the information base," Publication N695, ISO TC97/SC5/WG3, International Standarization Organization, 1982.
[20] KEE Primer KEE Version 3.1. IntelliCorp publication number K3.1-P-1, IntelliCorp, 1988.
[21] I. Kobayashi, "Validating database updates,"Inform. Syst., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-17, 1984.
[22] R. Kochhar, "Function management for knowledge based systems," Master's thesis, Univ. of Houston, Feb. 1988.
[23] R. Kowalski, F. Sadri, and P. Soper, "Integrity checking in deductive databases," inProc. Int. Conf. on Very Large Databases, Brighton, 1989.
[24] G. Lafue, "Semantic integrity dependencies and delayed integrity checking," inProc. Int. Conf. on Very Large Databases, Mexico City, 1982, pp. 292-299.
[25] K. Law, "Data management for knowledge based systems," Master's thesis, Univ. of Houston, July 1987.
[26] W. Ling, "Integrity constraint checking in deductive databases using the PROLOG not-predicate,"Data and Knowl. Eng., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 145-168, 1987.
[27] L. Liu, "Speeding up pattern matching in knowledge based systems," Master's thesis, Univ. of Houston, Apr. 1989.
[28] B. Martens and M. Bruynooghe, "Integrity constraint checking in deductive databases," inProc. Second Int. Conf. on Expert Database Systems, 1988, pp. 297-310.
[29] D. Miranker, "TREAT - A better match algorithm for AI production systems," inProc. Sixth Nat. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, 1987, pp. 42-47.
[30] J. Nicolas, "Logic for improving integrity checking in relational databases,"Acta Inform., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 227-253, 1982.
[31] X. Qian and G. Wiederhold, "Knowledge-based integrity constraint validation," inProc. Int. Conf. on Very Large Databases, Kyoto, 1986, pp. 3-12.
[32] S. Kumar, "Consistency enforcement and exception handling for knowledge based systems," Master's thesis, Univ. of Houston, Jan. 1988.
[33] M. Stonebraker, "Implementation of integrity constraints and views by query modification," inProc. 1975 ACM-SIGMOD Int. Conf. Management of Data, San Jose, CA, June 1975.
[34] M. Stonebraker and L. Rowe, "The design of POSTGRES," inProc. 1986 ACM-SIGMOD Conf. Management of Data, Washington, DC, May 1986.
[35] M. Stonebraker, H. Hanson, and S. Potomianos, "The POSTGRES rule manager,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, pp. 897-907, 1988.
[36] J. Wald, "Implementing constraints in a knowledge base," inProc. Second Int. Conf. on Expert Database Systems, 1988, pp. 53-62.
[37] P. Werstein, "Speeding up rules in integrated knowledge bases," Master's thesis, Univ. of Houston, May 1990.

Index Terms:
rule-based consistency enforcement; exception handlers; knowledge-based systems; consistency constraints; consistency checks; application programs; knowledge-base management system; rule entities; production rule; activation pattern controlled rule; forward chaining; system performance; data integrity; knowledge based systems
C.F. Eick, P. Werstein, "Rule-Based Consistency Enforcement for Knowledge-Based Systems," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 52-64, Feb. 1993, doi:10.1109/69.204091
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.