This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Image Information Systems: Where Do We Go From Here?
October 1992 (vol. 4 no. 5)
pp. 431-442

A conceptual framework for image information systems is presented. Current research topics are surveyed, and application examples are presented. The design issues for the next generation of active image systems are discussed. It is suggested that the next generation of active image information systems should be designed on the basis of notions of generalized icons and active indexes, resulting in smart images.

[1] A. D. Bimbo, M. Campanai, and P. Nesi, "Using 3D spatial relationships for image retrieval by contents," Tech. Rep., Univ. of Florence, Italy, 1992.
[2] M. L. Brodie, "On the development of data models," inOn Conceptual Modeling, M. L. Brodie, J. Mylopoulos, and J. W. Schmidt, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984, pp. 19-48.
[3] P. Butterworth, A. Otis, and J. Stein, "The GemStone object management system,"Commun. ACM, pp. 64-77, Oct. 1991.
[4] N. S. Chang and K. S. Fu, "Query-by-pictorial example,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-6, pp. 519-524, 1980.
[5] S. -K. Chang, Q. -Y. Shi, and C. -W. Yan, "Iconic indexing by 2-D strings,"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-9, no. 3, pp. 413-428, May 1987.
[6] S. K. Chang, C. W. Yan, T. Arndt, and D. Dimitroff, "An intelligent image database system,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., pp. 681-688, May 1988.
[7] S. K. Chang,Principles of Pictorial Information Systems Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
[8] S. K. Chang and E. Jungert, "Pictoral data management based upon the theory of symbolic projections,"J. Visual Lang. Comput., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 195-215, Sept. 1991.
[9] S. K. Chang, M. F. Costabile, and S. Levialdi, "A framework for intelligent visual interface design for database systems," inProc. Int. Workshop on Interfaces to Database Systems, Scotland, July 1-3, 1992.
[10] S. K. Chang, "Active index for smart images," Tech. Rep., Univ. of Pittsburgh, May 1992.
[11] S. K. Chang and E. Jungert, "The sigma-tree--A symbolic spatial data structure," inProc. Prattern Recognition Conf., The Hague, The Netherlands, Aug. 29-31, 1992.
[12] M. Chock, A. F. Cardenas, and A. Klinger, "Data base structure and manipulation capabilities of a picture data base management systems (PICDMS),"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. PAMI-5, pp. 484-492, 1984.
[13] P.R. Cohen et al., "Trial by Fire: Understanding the Design Requirements for Agents in Complex Environments,"AI Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1989, pp. 32-48.
[14] D. B. Farmer, R. King, and D. A. Myers, "The semantic database constructor,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, pp. 583-591, 1985.
[15] F. Fierens, J. Van Cleynenbreugle, P. Suetens, and A. Oosterlinck, " A software environment for image database research,"J. Visual Lang. Comput., vol. 3, pp. 49-68, 1992.
[16] R. G. Fraser and J. A. P. Pare,Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders, 1970, p. 381.
[17] W. I. Grosky and Y. Lu, "Iconic indexing using generalized pattern matching techniques,"Comput. Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 35, pp. 383-403, 1986.
[18] W. L. Gosky and Z. Jiang, "A hierarchical approach to feature indexing," inSPIE/IS&T Conf. on Image Storage and Retrieval System, Feb. 1992, pp. 9-20.
[19] A. Gupta, T. Weymouth, and R. Jain, "Semantic Queries with Pictures: The VIMSYS Model,"Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. on Very Large Databases, Morgan Kaufmann, Palo Alto, Calif., Aug. 1991, pp. 69-79.
[20] R. Gupta and E. Horowitz,Object-Oriented Database with Applications to CASE, Networks and VLSI CAD. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.
[21] P. D. Holmes, "Using connectivity graphs to support map-related reasoning," M. S. thesis, Dep. Comput. Inform. Sci., Linköping Univ., 1991.
[22] T. Y. Houet al., "A contact-based indexing technique using relative geometry features," inProc. SPIE/IS&T Symp. on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, San Jose, CA, 1992, pp. 59-68.
[23] H. V. Jagadish and L. O' Gorman, "An object-oriented model for image recognition,"IEEE Comput., vol. 22, pp. 33-41, 1989.
[24] H. V. Jagadish, "A retrieval technique for similar shapes," inProc. 1991 ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, vol. 20, no. 2, June 1991, pp. 208-217.
[25] T. Joseph and A. F. Cardenas, "Picquery: A high level query language for pictorial database management,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, pp. 630-638, May 1988.
[26] E. Jungert, and S. K. Chang, "An algebra for symbolic image manipulation and transformation," inVisual Database Systems. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1989, pp. 301-317.
[27] W. Kim and F. H. Lochovsky,Object-Oriented Concepts, Databases and Applications, New York: ACM Press, 1989.
[28] W. Kim, "Object-oriented databases: Definition and research directions,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 2, pp. 327-341, Sept. 1990.
[29] A. Klinger and A. Pizano, "Visual structures and data bases," inVisual Database Systems. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1989, pp. 3-25.
[30] P. Kofkis, A. Karmirantzos, Y. Kavaklis, and S. Orphasnoudakis, "Image archiving by content: An object-oriented approach." inProc. SPIE Medical Imaging IV: PACS System Design and Evaluation, vol. 1234, 1990.
[31] P. Liu, T. Hou, A. Hsu, and M. Chiu, "Semantic-based progressive image transmission," private communications, 1992.
[32] J. Lohse, "A cognitive model of the perception and understanding of graphs," inProc. CHI91, New Orleans, 1991, pp. 137-144.
[33] R. Mehrotra and W. I. Grosky, "REMINDS: A relational model-based integrated image and test database management system," inProc. IEEE Workshop on Computer Architecture for Pattern Analysis and Image Database Management, Miami Beach, FL, 1985, pp. 348-354.
[34] R. Mehrotra and W. I. Grosky, "Shape matching utilizing indexed hypotheses generation and testing,"IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., vol. 5, pp. 70-77, Feb. 1989.
[35] J. R. Olson and G. M. Olson, "The growth of cognitive modeling in human-computer interaction since GOMS,"Human Comput. Interaction, 1990.
[36] "Ontos," inOntos System Documentation. Burlington, MA: 1991.
[37] A. Pizano, A. Klinger, and A. F. Cardenas, "Specification of spatial integrity constraints in pictorial databases,"IEEE Comput., pp. 59-71. Dec. 1989.
[38] F. Rabitti and P. Stanchev, "GRIM-DBMS: A GRaphical IMage Data-Base management system," inVisual Database Systems. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1989, pp. 415-430.
[39] N. Rossoupoulos,et al., "An efficient pictorial database system for PSQL,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, pp. 639-650, May 1988.
[40] L. G. Shapiro and R. M. Haralick, "Organization of relational models for scene analysis,"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. PAMI-4, pp. 595-602, 1982.
[41] O. R. L. Sheng and C. -P. Wei, "Object-oriented modeling and design of knowledge-base/database system," inProc. Eighth Int. Conf. on Data Engineering, Tempe, AZ, 1992, pp. 87-102.
[42] Informix Products for Document Imaging, Informix Software. Lenexa, KS, Jan. 1991.
[43] H. D. Tagare, C. C. Jaffe, and J. S. Duncan, "Requirements for medical image databases," Tech. Rep., School of Medicine, Yale Univ., Jan. 1992.
[44] H. D. Tagare, G. R. Gindi, J. S. Duncan, and C. C. Jaffe, "A geometric indexing schema for an image library,"Computer Assisted Radiology, pp. 513-518, 1991.
[45] G. Y. Tang, "A management system for an integrated database of pictures and alphanumeric data,"Comput. Graphics Image Proc., vol. 16, pp. 270-286, 1981.
[46] A. Treisman, "Search assymmetry: A diagnostic for preattentive processing of separabble features."J. Experiment. Psychology: General, vol. 114, pp. 285-310, 1985.
[47] "UniSQL",UniSQL System Documentation, Austin, TX, 1991.

Index Terms:
image information systems; active image systems; icons; active indexes; smart images; visual databases
S.-K. Chang, A. Hsu, "Image Information Systems: Where Do We Go From Here?," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 431-442, Oct. 1992, doi:10.1109/69.166986
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.