This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
A Unifying Approach to Iconic Indexing for 2-D and 3-D Scenes
June 1992 (vol. 4 no. 3)
pp. 205-222

Several iconic indexes for representing three-dimensional scenes are presented. The approach extends previous work in iconic indexing of two-dimensional scenes in a unified manner. Good characteristics for iconic indexes are also pointed out. OPP2 and OPP3, two-dimensional iconic indexes for three-dimensional scenes, are introduced. The problem of ambiguity in the OPP2 and OPP3 representations of three-dimensional scenes is studied in detail and a class of images for which they are unambiguous is identified. The Genstring, a linear iconic index which can be used to represent two-, three-, or higher-dimensional scenes, is introduced. It provides a compact, unambiguous representation of a three-dimensional scene. The Genstring takes advantage of previous work, thus providing fast pattern matching for higher-dimensional scenes. In fact, the pattern matching algorithm given for k-dimensional scenes is as fast as that previously given for two-dimensional scenes.

[1] T. Arndt and S.-K. Chang, "Image sequence compression by iconic indexing," inProc. IEEE Workshop Visual Languages, Rome, Italy, 1989, pp. 177-182.
[2] N. S. Chang and K. S. Fu, "Query-by-pictorial-example,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-6, pp. 519-524, Nov. 1980.
[3] N. S. Chang and K. S. Fu, "A query language for relational image database systems," inProc. Workshop Picture Data Description and Management, Asilomar, CA, 1980, pp. 68-73.
[4] S.-K. Chang and S. H. Liu, "Picture indexing and abstraction techniques for pictorial databases,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-6, pp. 475-484, July 1984.
[5] S.-K. Chang, J. Reuss, and B. H. McCormick, "Design considerations of a pictorial database,"Int. J. Policy Anal. Inform. Syst., vol. 1, pp. 49-70, 1978.
[6] S. -K. Chang, Q. -Y. Shi, and C. -W. Yan, "Iconic indexing by 2-D strings,"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-9, no. 3, pp. 413-428, May 1987.
[7] S.-K. Chang, C. W. Yan, D. C. Dimitroff, and T. Arndt, "An intelligent image database system,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-14 pp. 681-688, May 1988.
[8] S.-K. Chang, "The reconstruction of binary patterns from their projections,"Commun. ACM, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21-25, Jan. 1971.
[9] S.-K. Chang, and T. Kunii, "Pictorial database systems,"IEEE Comput. Mag., Special Issue on Pictorial Information Systems, vol 14, pp. 13-21, Nov. 1981.
[10] S. K. Chang,Principles of Pictorial Information Systems Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
[11] S.-K. Chang and Y. Li, "Representation of multi-resolution symbolic and binary pictures using 2DH strings," inProc. IEEE Workshop Languages for Automation, 1988, pp. 190-195.
[12] S.-K. Chang, E. Jungert, and Y. Li "The design of pictorial databases based upon the theory of symbolic projections," inProc. 1989 Conf. Very Large Spatial Databases, Springer-Verlag, 1989.
[13] S.-K. Chang, "Representation and retrieval of symbolic pictures using generalized 2D strings," inSPIE Proc. Visual Commun. and Image Processing, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 5-10, 1989.
[14] M. Chock, A. F. Cardenas, and A. Klinger, "Database structure and manipulation capabilities of the picture database management system (PICDMS),"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-6, pp. 484-492, July 1984.
[15] W. I. Grosky and Y. Lu, "Iconic indexing using generalized pattern matching techniques,"Comput. Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 35, pp. 383-403, 1986.
[16] H. Guttman, "R-trees: A dynamic index structure for spatial searching," inProc. ACM/SIGMOD Conf., 1984, pp. 47-56.
[17] C. L. Jackins and S. L. Tanimoto, "Oct-trees and their use in representing three-dimensional objects,"Comput. Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 249-270, Nov. 1980.
[18] E. Jungertet al., "Vega: A geographical information system," inProc. Scandinavian Res. Conf. Geographical Information Systems, Linkoping, Sweden, June 13-14, 1985.
[19] E. Jungert, "Extended symbolic projections as a knowledge structure for spatial reasoning and planning," inPattern Recognition(J. Kittler, Ed.). New York: Springer Verlag, 1988.
[20] E. Jungert and S.-K. Chang, "An algebra for symbolic image manipulation and transformation," inVisual Database Systems. North-Holland, 1989, pp. 301-317.
[21] Y. C. Lee, and K. S. Fu, "A CSG based DBMS for CAD/CAM and its supporting query language,"ACM SIGMOD Eng. Design Appl.--Database Week, San Jose, CA, 1983, pp. 123-130.
[22] D. J. Meagher, "Geometric modeling using octree encoding,"Comput. Graph. and Image Processing, vol. 19, no.2, pp. 129-147, June 1981.
[23] L. Mohan and R. L. Kashyap, "An object-oriented knowledge representation for spatial information,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-14, pp. 675-681, May 1988.
[24] N. Roussopoulos, C. Faloutsos, and T. Sellis, "An efficient pictorial database system for PSQL,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-14, pp. 639-650, May 1988.
[25] H. Sametet al., "Processing geographic data with quadtrees," inProc. Seventh Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition, Montreal, P.Q., Canada, 1984.
[26] H. Samet, "The quadtree and related hierarchical data structures,"Comput. Surveys, vol. 16, pp. 187-260, 1984.
[27] H. Tamura and N. Yokoya, "Image database systems: A survey,"Pattern Recognition, vol. 17, pp. 29-43, 1984.
[28] S. L. Tanimoto, "An iconic/symbolic data structuring scheme," inPattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. New York: Academic, 1976, pp. 452-471.
[29] G. Tortora, G. Costagliola, T. Arndt, and S.-K. Chang "Pyramidal algorithms for iconic indexing," inProc. IEEE Conf. Syst., Man, Cybern., Alexandria, VA, Oct. 1987, pp. 1004-1010.
[30] G. Tortora, "Pyramidal algorithms for iconic indexing,"Comput. Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 52, pp. 26-56, 1990.
[31] K. Yamaguchi, N. Ohobo, R. L. Kunii, H. Kitagagwa, and M. Harada, "ELF: Extended relational model for large, flexible picture databases," inProc. Workshop Picture Data Description and Management, Asilomar, CA, 1980, pp. 85-100.

Index Terms:
2-D scenes; unifying approach; iconic indexing; 3-D scenes; OPP2; OPP3; Genstring; linear iconic index; pattern matching; computerised pattern recognition; computerised picture processing; database management systems; graphical user interfaces; indexing; information retrieval
G. Costagliola, G. Tortora, T. Arndt, "A Unifying Approach to Iconic Indexing for 2-D and 3-D Scenes," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 205-222, June 1992, doi:10.1109/69.142013
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.