This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Queries on Change in an Extended Relational Model
April 1992 (vol. 4 no. 2)
pp. 192-200

A data model that allows for the storage of detailed change history in so-called backlog relations is described. Its extended relational algebra, in conjunction with the extended data structures, provides a powerful tool for the retrieval of patterns and exceptions in change history. An operator, Sigma , based on the notion of compact active domain is introduced. It groups data not in predefined groups but in groups that fit the data. This operator further expands the retrieval capabilities of the algebra. The expressive power of the algebra is demonstrated by examples, some of which show how patterns and exceptions in change history can be detected. Sample applications of this work are statistical and scientific databases, monitoring (of databases, manufacturing plants, power plants, etc.), CAD, and CASE.

[1] R. Agrawal, "Alpha: An Extension of Relational Algebra to Express a Class of Recursive Queries,"Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Data Eng., CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., Order No. FN762, 1987, pp. 580-590.
[2] G. Ariav, "A temporal oriented data model,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 499-527, Dec. 1986.
[3] A. Bolour, T. L. Anderson, L. J. Dekeyser, and H. K. T. Wong, "The role of time in information processing: A survey,"ACM SIGMOD Rec., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 27-50, Apr. 1982.
[4] J. Clifford and A. Croker, "The historical relational datamodel (HRDM) and algebra based on lifespan,"Data Eng., pp. 528-537, Feb. 1987.
[5] J. Clifford and A. V. Tansel, "On an algebra for historical relational databases: Two views," inProc. ACM SIGMOD, 1985, pp. 247- 265.
[6] J. Clifford and D. S. Warren, "Formal semantics for time in databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 6. no. 2, pp. 214-254, 1983.
[7] C. J. Date, "`Defining data types in a database language (Alternative Title: A proposal for adding date and time support to SQL),"SIGMOD Rec., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 53-76, June 1988.
[8] K. S. Gadia, "A homogeneous relational model and query languages for temporal databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 418-448, Dec. 1988.
[9] N. Gehani, "Databases and unit of measure,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-8, pp. 605-611, Nov. 1982.
[10] S.P. Ghosh, "Statistical Relational Tables for Statistical Database Management,"IEEE Trans. on Software Eng., Vol. SE-12, No. 12, Dec. 1986, pp. 1,106- 1.116.
[11] S. P. Ghosh, "Statistical relational databases: Normal forms," Tech. Rep. RJ- 6555, IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA, Nov. 1988.
[12] P. Hall, J. Owlett, and S. J. P. Todd, "Relations and entities," inModeling in Data Base Management Systems, G. M. Nijssen, Ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1976, pp. 201-220.
[13] M. A. Jackson.System Development, Prentice-Hall International Series in Computer Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983.
[14] C. S. Jensen, L. Mark, and N. Roussopoulos, "Incremental implementation model for relational databases with transaction time,"IEEE Trans. Knowledge Data Eng., vol. 3, pp. 461-473, December 1991.
[15] C. S. Jensen, L. Mark, N. Roussopoulos, and T. Sellis, "Using differential techniques to efficiently support transaction time," to be published.
[16] M. Karr and D.B. Loveman III, "Incorporation of Units into Programming Languages,"Comm. ACM, May, 1978, pp. 385-391.
[17] A. Klug, "Equivalence of Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus Query Languages Having Aggregate Functions,"J. ACM, Vol. 29, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 699-717.
[18] N. A. Lorentzos and R. G. Johnson, "Extending relational algebra to manipulate temporal data,"Inform. Syst., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 289-296, 1988.
[19] E. McKenzie and R. Snodgrass, "Extending the relational algebra to support transaction time," inProc. ACM SIGMOD '88, 1988, pp. 467-477.
[20] E. McKenzie, "An evaluation of algebras incorporating time," Tech. Rep. TR- 89-22, Dep. Comput. Sci., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, Sept. 1989.
[21] A. Motro, "Query generalization: A technique for handling query failure," inProc. First Int. Workshop Expert Database Syst., Oct. 1984, pp. 314-325.
[22] G. Ozsoyoglu and Z. Ozsoyoglu, "Statistical database query languages,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, no. 10, pp. 1071- 1080, Oct. 1985.
[23] N. Roussopoulos, "The logical access path schema of a database,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 8, pp. 563-573, Nov. 1982.
[24] N. Roussopoulos, "View indexing in relational databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 7, no. 2, June 1982.
[25] N. Roussopoulos, "The incremental access method of view cache: Concept, algorithms, and cost analysis," Tech. Rep. UMIACS-TR-89-15, CS-TR- 2193, Dep. Comput. Sci., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, Feb. 1989.
[26] N. Roussopoulos and H. Kang, "Principles and techniques in the design of ADMS±,"computer, vol. 19, no. 12, Dec. 1986.
[27] N. L. Sarda, "Extensions to SQL for historical databases,"IEEE Trans. Knowledge Data Eng., vol. 2, pp. 220-230, June 1990.
[28] A. Shoshani, "Statistical databases: Characteristics, problems, and some solutions," inProc. 8th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, Mexico City, Mexico, 1982, pp. 208-222.
[29] A. Shoshani and K. Kawagoe, "Temporal data management," inProc. VLDB, Kyoto, Japan, 1986, pp. 79-88.
[30] A. Shoshani and H. K. T. Wong, "Statistical and scientific database issues,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, pp. 1040-1047, Oct. 1985.
[31] R. Snodgrass, "The temporal query language TQuel,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 12, no. 2, June 1987.
[32] R. Snodgrass and I. Ahn, "A taxonomy of time in databases," inProc. ACM SIGMOD '85, 1985, pp. 236-246.
[33] R. Snodgrass, S. Gomez, and E. McKenzie, "Aggregates in the temporal query language TQuel," Tech. Rep. TR 89-26, Dep. Comput. Sci., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85 721, Nov. 1989.
[34] A. U. Tansel, E. M. Arkun, and G.Özsoyoglu, "Time-by-example query language for historical databases,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15 pp. 464-478, Apr. 1989.
[35] A. U. Tansel, "Adding time dimension to relational model and extending relational algebra,"Inform. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 343-355, 1986.
[36] A. U. Tansel, "A statistical interface for historical relational databases," inData Eng., pp. 538-546, Feb. 1987.

Index Terms:
statistical databases; extended relational model; detailed change history; backlog relations; relational algebra; data structures; patterns; exceptions; compact active domain; scientific databases; CAD; CASE; data structures; error handling; relational databases
C.S. Jensen, L. Mark, "Queries on Change in an Extended Relational Model," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 192-200, April 1992, doi:10.1109/69.134258
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.