This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Modeling and Analysis of a Time-Stamp History Based Certification Protocol for Concurrency Control
December 1991 (vol. 3 no. 4)
pp. 525-537

An examination is made of a technique to derive the time-stamp or interval of time-stamps dynamically by using limited time-stamp history information to re-order transaction at commit time and to derive a back-shifted time-stamp for certification to reduce read-write conflicts. An analytic model to quantify the performance improvement by comparison with the basic time-stamp certification scheme is developed. Since the committed conflicting transaction may itself be back-shifted, the analytic model needs to estimate the distribution of the back-shift of the certification time-stamp in order to determine the probability of successfully back-shifting a transaction requesting commit. It is shown how this relatively complex protocol can be analyzed using a few simple approximations, validate the analysis through simulations, and the range of parameter values for which this approach is most beneficial is determined.

[1] D. Agrawal, A. J. Berstein, P. Gupta, and S. Sengupta, "Distributed optimistic concurrency control with reduced rollback,"Distributed Comput., vol. 2, pp. 45-59, 1987.
[2] R. Agrawal, M. J. Carey, and M. Linvy, "Concurrency control performance modelling: Alternatives and implications,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 12, pp. 609-654, Dec. 1987.
[3] M. A. Bassiouni and U. Khamare, "Optimistic concurrency control schemes for performance enhancement," inProc. COMPSAC 86, Chicago, IL, Oct. 1986, pp. 43-49.
[4] R. Bayer, K. Elhardt, J. Heigert, and A. Reiser, "Dynamic timestamp allocation for transactions in database systems," inProc. ACM/SIGMOD 82 Int. Conf. Management Data, 1982, pp. 9-21.
[5] P.A. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman,Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987.
[6] C. Boksenbaum, M. Cart, J. Ferrie, and J. F. Pans, "Concurrent certifications by intervals of time stamps in distributed database systems,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-13, pp. 409-419, Apr. 1987.
[7] M. J. Carey and W. A. Muhanna, "The performance of multiversion concurrency control algorithms,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 338-378, Nov. 1986.
[8] A. Dan, D. F. Towsley, and W. H. Kohler, "Modeling the effects of data and resource contention on the performance of optimistic concurrency control protocols," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. on Data Eng.(Los Angeles, CA), Feb. 1988, pp. 418-425.
[9] A. Dan, D. M. Dias, and P.S. Yu, "Database buffer model for the data sharing environment," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. on Data Eng.(Los Angeles, CA), Feb. 1990, pp. 538-544.
[10] D. M. Dias, B. R. Iyer, and P.S. Yu, "Tradeoffs between coupling small and large processors for transaction processing,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 37, pp. 310-320, Mar. 1988.
[11] P. Franaszek and J. T. Robinson, "Limitations on concurrency in transaction processing,"ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 10, Mar. 1985.
[12] B. I. Galler, "Concurrency control performance issues," Ph.D. thesis, Comput. Sci. Dept., Univ. Toronto, Sept. 1982.
[13] B. I. Galler and L. Bos, "A model of transaction blocking in databases,"Perform. Eval., vol. 3, pp. 95-122, 1983.
[14] T. Hearder, "Observations on optimistic concurrency control schemes,"Inform. Syst., vol. 9, pp. 111-120, 1984.
[15] H. T. Kung and J. T. Robinson, "On optimistic methods for concurrency control,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 6, pp. 213-226, June 1981.
[16] S.S. Lavenberg,Computer Performance Modeling Handbook, Academic Press, New York, 1983.
[17] D. A. Menasce and T. Nakanishi, "Optimistic versus pessimistic concurrency control mechanism in database management systems,"Inform. Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 13-27, 1982.
[18] R. J. T. Morris and W. S. Wong, "Performance analysis of locking and optimistic concurrency control algorithms,"Perform. Eval., vol. 5, pp. 105-118, 1985.
[19] J. T. Robinson, "Experiments with transaction processing on multiprocessor," IBM Res. Rep. RC9725, Yorktown Heights, NY, Dec. 1982.
[20] J.D. Noe and D.B. Wagner, "Measured performance of time interval concurrency control techniques, " inProc. 13th Int. Conf. Very Large Databases, 1987, pp. 359-365.
[21] K. M. Sinha, P. D. Nandikar, and S. L. Mehndiratta, "Timestamp based certification schemes for transactions in distributed database systems," inProc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. Management of Data, pp. 402-411, 1985.
[22] M. Singhal, "Concepts of conflict resolution in optimistic concurrency control algorithms: Lessons from random access techniques," TR OSUCISRC-86TRIMS, Dep. Comput. and Inform. Sci., Ohio State Univ., June 1986.
[23] Y. C. Tay, "A mean value performance model for locking in databases," Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, Feb. 1984.
[24] Y.C. Tay, N. Goodman, and R. Suri, "Locking performance in centralized databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 415-462, Dec. 1985.
[25] P.S. Yu, D. M. Dias, J. T. Robinson, B. R., Iyer, and D. W. Cornell, "On coupling multi-systems through data sharing,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 75, pp. 573-587, May 1987.
[26] P.S. Yu, D. M. Dias, D. W. Cornell, and B. R. Iyer, "Analysis of affinity based routing in multi-system data sharing,"Perform. Eval., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 87-109, June 1987.
[27] P.S. Yu and D. M. Dias, "Analysis of hybrid concurrency control schemes for a high data contention environment,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., to be published.
[28] P. S. Yu and D. M. Dias, "Impact of large memory on the performance of optimistic concurrency control schemes," inProc. PARABASE-90: Int. Conf. Databases, Parallel Architectures and their Applications, Miami Beach, FL, Mar. 1990, pp. 86-90.
[29] P.S. Yu, D.M. Dias, and S. S. Lavenberg, "On modeling database concurrency control," IBM Res. Rep. RC 15386, Yorktown Heights, NY, Jan. 1990.
[30] P. S. Yu and D.M. Dias, "Concurrency control using locking with deferred blocking," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. Data Engineering, pp. 30-36, 1990.

Index Terms:
time-stamp history; certification protocol; concurrency control; commit time; back-shifted time-stamp; read-write conflicts; analytic model; conflicting transaction; probability; transaction requesting commit; approximations; concurrency control; database theory; distributed databases; protocols; transaction processing
P.S. Yu, H.-U. Heiss, D.M. Dias, "Modeling and Analysis of a Time-Stamp History Based Certification Protocol for Concurrency Control," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 525-537, Dec. 1991, doi:10.1109/69.109112
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.