This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
The Impact of Optics on Data and Knowledge Base Systems
March 1989 (vol. 1 no. 1)
pp. 111-132

The authors assess the possible impact of optics on database and knowledge base systems, focusing on storage, interconnection, and processing. Various types of optical disks and page-oriented holographic memories are discussed. In the interconnection section, data communication is discussed at a variety of levels. Under processing, applications involving optical content addressable memories, optical data/knowledge base machines, and optics applied to full text processing will be optoelectronic, with easy technology providing its strength to the problem under consideration. It is noted that optical interconnection is superior to electronic interconnection in many cases and that the rapid advance of optical storage holds the potential of hundreds of megabytes per second data rates from a single storage unit. It is noted that optical processing holds considerable promise but lags behind primarily because digital optical device development is in its infancy.

[1] P.B. Berra and N.B. Troullinos, "Optical Techniques and Data/ Knowledge Base Machines,"Computer, Vol. 20, No. 10, Oct. 1987, pp. 59-70.
[2] P. B. Berra, K. H. Brenner, W. T. Cathey, H. J. Caulfield, S. H. Lee, and H. H. Szu, "Optical database/knowledgebase machines," submitted for publication, 1989.
[3] Y. S. Abu-Mostafa and D. Pslatis, "Optical neural computing,"Sci. Amer., vol. 256, pp. 66-73, 1987.
[4] D. Psaltis, A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, and S. Kobayashi, "Parallel readout of optical disks," inProc. OSA Top. Meet. Opt. Comput., vol. 9, Salt Lake City, UT, Feb. 1989, pp. 58-61.
[5] W. P. Altman, G. M. Claffie, and M. L. Levene, "Optical storage for high performance applications in the late 1980's and beyond,"RCA Eng. Mag., vol. 31-1. Jan./Feb. 1986.
[6] W. Carpenter and G. Herman, "Comparative analysis of online data storage technologies," MITRE Corp., Tech. Rep. MTR-86W117, Oct. 1986.
[7] S. Christodoulakis, "Analysis of retrieval performance for records and objects using optical disk technology,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 12, pp. 137-169, June 1987.
[8] A. Saito, T. Maeda, H. Sugiyama, and Y. Tsunoda, "High storage density optical disks using pit-edge recording on Pb-Te-Se thin film," inProc. OSA Top. Meet. Opt. Data Storage, vol. 10, Stateline, NV, Mar. 1987, pp. 64-67.
[9] P. P. Chen, "The compact disk ROM: How it works,"IEEE Spectrum, vol. 23, pp. 44-49, Apr. 1986.
[10] G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. V. Rosmalen, and K. Schouhamer Immink,Principles of Optical Disc Systems. Bristol, UK: Adam Hilger, 1985.
[11] J. Isailovic,Videodisks and Optical Memory Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985.
[12] R. Barton, C. R. Davis, K. Rubin, and G. Lim, "New phase-change material for optical recording with short erase time,"Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 1255-1257, May 1986.
[13] H. Oba, M. Abe, M. Umehara, T. Sato, Y. Ueda, and M. Kunikane, "Organic dye materials for optical recording media,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 4023-4026, Nov. 1986.
[14] J. S. Hartman and M. A. Lind, "Erasable bilayer dye-polymer optical recording medium," inProc. OSA Top. Meet. Opt. Data Storage, vol. 10, Stateline NV, Mar. 1987, pp. 155-158.
[15] T. Murakami, K. Taira, and M. Mori, "Magnetooptic erasable disk memory with two optical heads,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 3986- 3989, Nov. 1986.
[16] R.P. Freese, "Optical Disks Become Erasable,"IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 25, Feb. 1988, pp. 41-45.
[17] G. J. Ammon, J. A. Calabria, and D. T. Thomas, "A high-speed, large-capacity, 'jukebox' optical disk system,"IEEE Computer, vol. 18, pp. 36-45, July 1985.
[18] D. Gabor, "Associative holographic memories,"IBM Res. J., vol. 13, pp. 156-159, Mar. 1969.
[19] H. M. Smith,Principles of Holography. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1969.
[20] H. J. Caulfield and S. Lu,The Applications of Holography. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970.
[21] H. M. Smith,Holographic Recording Materials. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1977.
[22] N. H. Farhat,Advances in Holography, Vol. 3. New York: Marcel-Dekker, 1976.
[23] S. H. Lee,Optical Information Processing. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981.
[24] P. Hariharan,Optical Holography: Principles, Techniques and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
[25] H. Gibbs,Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light. New York: Academic, 1986.
[26] See Special Issue on Photonic Switching,IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 25, no. 5, May 1987.
[27] H. Gibbs and N. Peyghambarian, "Nonlinear etalons and optical computing," inProc. SPIE 634, Optical and Hybrid Comput., Mar. 1986, pp. 142-148.
[28] M. Warren, S. Koch, and H. Gibbs, "Optical bistability, logic gating, and waveguide operation in semiconductor etalons,"IEEE Computer, vol. 20, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1987.
[29] S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherret, and A. Hendry, "Room temperature, visible wavelength optical bistability in ZnSe interference filters,"Opt. Commun., vol. 51, pp. 357-362, Oct. 1984.
[30] J. L. Jewell, M. C. Rushford, and H. M. Gibbs, "Use of a single non-linear Fabry-Perot etalon as optical logic gates,"Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 44, pp. 172-174, Jan. 1984.
[31] D.A.B. Miller et al., "The Quantum Well Self-Electra-optic Effect Device: Opto-electronic Bistability and Oscillation, and Self-Linearized Modulation,"IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE- 21, Sept. 1985, pp. 1462-1476.
[32] D. A. B. Miller, "Quantum wells for information processing,"Opt. Eng., vol. 26, pp. 368-372, May 1987.
[33] T. E. Bell, "Optical computing: A field in flux,"IEEE Spectrum, vol. 23, pp. 34-57, Aug. 1986.
[34] D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, "Array of optically bistable integrated self-electrooptic effect devices," inProc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Francisco, CA, 1986, pp. 32-33.
[35] H.S. Hinton, "Architectural Considerations for Photonic Switching Networks,"IEEE J. Selected Areas Comm., Vol. SAC-6, No. 7, Aug. 1988, pp. 1,209-1,226.
[36] A. L. Lentineet al., "Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device," inProc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics(postdeadline paper), Apr. 1987, pp. 249-250.
[37] L. West, "GaAs quantum wells," Ph.D. dissertation, Lawrence Livermore Labs., Livermore, CA, 1985.
[38] C. Warde and A. Fisher, "Spatial light modulators: Applications and functional capabilities," inOptical Signal Processing, J. Horner, Ed. New York: Academic, 1987, pp. 478-524.
[39] W. Penn, "Liquid crystals and spatial light modulators," inProc. SPIE 30th ITS on Opt. O-E ASE, Aug. 1986, Tut. T24.
[40] G. R. Knight, "Interface devices and memory materials," inOptical Information Processing-Fundamentals(Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 48). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981, pp. 111-180.
[41] J. N. Lee and A. D. Fisher, "Development issues for MCP-based spatial light modulators," inProc. OSA Top. Meet. Spatial Light Modulators Appl., vol. 8, S. Lake Tahoe, NV, June 1988, pp. 60- 63.
[42] D. Casasent, G. Silbershatz, and B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, "Acoustooptic matched filter correlator,"Appl. Opt., vol. 21, pp. 2356- 2364, July 1982.
[43] D. Casasent and E. C. Botha, "Knowledge in optical symbolic pattern recognition processors,"Opt. Eng., vol. 26, pp. 34-40, Jan. 1987.
[44] M. Haney and D. Psaltis, "Real-time programmable acoustooptic synthetic aperture radar processor,"Appl. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 1786- 1796, May 1988.
[45] W. T. Rhodes and P. S. Guilfoyle, "Acoustooptic algebraic processing architectures," inProc. IEEE, vol. 72, pp. 820-830, July 1984.
[46] P. S. Guilfoyle and W. Jackson Wiley, "Combinatorial logic based optical computing architectures,"Appl. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 1661-1673, May 1988.
[47] D. Casasent, "Acoustooptic transducers in iterative optical vectormatrix processors,"Appl. Opt., vol. 21, pp. 1859-1865, May 1982.
[48] R. A. Athale and W. C. Collins, "Optical matrix-matrix multiplier based on outer product decomposition,"Appl. Opt., vol. 21, pp. 2089-2090, Jan. 1982.
[49] V. Chadran, T. E. Krile, and J. F. Walkup, "Optical techniques for real-time binary multiplication,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 2272-2276, July 1986.
[50] H. J. Caulfield, D. Dvore, J. W. Goodman, and W. Rhodes, "Eigen vector determination by noncoherent optical methods,"Appl. Opt., vol. 20, pp. 2263-2265, July 1981.
[51] F. T. S. Yu, Q. W. Song, and X. J. Lu, "Implementation of boolean logic gates using a micromechanical spatial light modulator with liquid-crystal televisions,"Opt. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 962-964, Nov. 1987.
[52] H. J. Caulfield, W. T. Rhodes, M. J. Foster, and S. Horowitz, "Optical implementation of systolic array processing,"Opt. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 86-90, Dec. 1981.
[53] D. Casasent, "Acoustooptic linear algebra processors: Architectures, algorithms and applications," inProc. IEEE, vol. 72, pp. 831-849, July 1984.
[54] K. H. Brenmer, A. Huang, and N. Streibl, "Digital optical computing with symbolic substitution,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 3054-3060, Sept. 1986.
[55] K. H. Brenner, "New implementation of symbolic substitution logic,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 3061-3064, Sept. 1981.
[56] A. W. Lohman, W. Stork, and G. Stuck, "Optical perfect shuffle,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 1530-1531, May 1986.
[57] Q. W. Song and F. T. S. Yu, "Generalized perfect shuffle using optical spatial filtering,"Appl. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 1222-1223, Apr. 1988.
[58] A. A. Sawchuk and T. C. Strand, "Digital optical computing,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 72, pp. 942-953, July 1984.
[59] M. Takeda and J. W. Goodman, "Neural networks for computation: Number representations and programming complexity,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 3033-3046, Sept. 1986.
[60] H. J. Caulfield, "Optical inference machines,"Opt. Commun., vol. 55, pp. 259-260, Sept. 1985.
[61] C. Warde and J. Kottas, "Hybrid optical inference machines--Architectural considerations,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 940-947, Mar. 1986.
[62] H. H. Szu and H. J. Caulfield, "Optical expert systems,"Appl. Opt., vol. 26, pp. 1943-1947, May 1987.
[63] M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, "Comparison between optical and electrical interconnects based on power and speed considerations,"Appl. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 1742-1751, May 1988.
[64] J. W. Goodman, F. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, "Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 72, pp. 850-866, July 1984.
[65] J. W. Goodman, "Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,"Opt. Acta, vol. 32, pp. 1489-1496, 1985.
[66] R. I. McDonald, "Terminology for photonic matrix switches,"IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 6, pp. 1141-1151, Aug. 1988.
[67] A. S. Tannenbaum,Computer Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981.
[68] P. A. Dwyer and J. A. Larson, "Some experience with a distributed database testbed system," inProc. IEEE, vol. 75, pp. 633-648, May 1987.
[69] J. R. Erickson, R. A. Nordin, W. A. Payne, and M. T. Ratajack, "A 1.7 gigabit-per-second, time-multiplexed photonic switching experiment,"IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 25, pp. 56-58, May 1987.
[70] See Special Issue on Optical Multiaccess Network,IEEE Network, vol. 3, Mar. 1989.
[71] S. Suzuki, T. Terahado, K. Komatsu, K. Hagashima, A. Suzuki, and M. Kondo, "An experiment on high-speed optical time-division switching,"J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp. 894-899, July 1986.
[72] J. R. Jones, J. S. Kennedy, and F. W. Scholl, "A prototype CSMA/ CD local network using fiber optics," presented at Local Area Networks'82, Los Angeles, CA, Sept. 1982.
[73] L. W. Tucker and G. G. Robertson, "Architecture and applications of the connection machine,"IEEE Computer, vol. 21, pp. 26-38, Aug. 1988.
[74] P. M. Neches, "The anatomy of a data base computer-Revisited," inProc. IEEE COMPCON, Spring 1986.
[75] S. J. Stolfo and D. P. Miranker, "DADO: A parallel processor for expert systems," inProc. 1984 Int. Conf. Parallel Processing, Columbus, OH, Aug. 1984, pp. 74-82.
[76] H. Tanaka, "A parallel inference machine,"IEEE Computer, vol. 19, pp. 48-54, May 1986.
[77] W. W. Chu, K. H. Kim, and W. C. McDonald, "Testbed-based validation of design techniques for reliable distributed real-time systems,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 75, pp. 649-667, May 1987.
[78] D. Dewitt, R. H. Gerber, G. Graefe, M. L. Heytens, K. B. Kumar, and M. Muralikrishna, "GAMMA--A high performance dataflow database machine," inProc. 12th Int. Conf. VLDB, Kyoto, Japan, Aug. 1986, pp. 228-237.
[79] G. F. Pfister, W. C. Brantley, D. A. George, S. L. Harvey, W. J. Kleinfelder, K. P. McAuliffe, E. A. Melton, V. A. Norton, and J. Weiss, "The IBM research parallel processor prototype (RP3): Introduction and architecture," inProc. 15th Int. Conf. Parallel Processing, Aug. 1985, pp. 764-771.
[80] P. Granestrand, B. Stoltz, L. Thylen, K. Bergvall, W. Doldissen, H. Heinrich, and D. Hoffmann, "Strictly nonblocking 8×8 integrated optical switch matrix,"Electron. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 816-818, July 1986.
[81] P. R. Prucnal, D. J. Blumenthal, and P. A. Perrier, "Self-routing photonic switching demonstration with optical control,"Opt. Eng., vol. 26, pp. 473-477, May 1987.
[82] A. R. Dias, R. F. Kalman, J. W. Goodman, and A. A. Sawchuk, "Fiber-optic crossbar switch with broadcast capability,"Opt. Eng., vol. 27, pp. 955-960, Nov. 1988.
[83] A. Himeno and M. Kobayashi, "4×4 optical-gate matrix switch,"J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-3, pp. 230-235, Apr. 1985.
[84] T. Venkatesan, B. Wilkens, Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. S. Smith, and A. Yariv, "Fabrication of arrays of GaAs optical bistable devices,"Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 145-147, Jan. 1986.
[85] E. Davidson, D. Kuck, D. Lawrie, and A. Sameh, "Supercomputing tradeoffs and the cedar system," Univ. Illinois, CSRD Rep. 57, May 1986.
[86] A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, and A. Varma, "Optical crossbar networks,"IEEE Comput., June 1987.
[87] N. Matloff, S. Kowel, and C. Eldering, "OPTIMUL: An optical interconnect for multiprocessor systems," ACM Int. Conf. Supercomput., 1988.
[88] C. V. Ramamoorthy, J. L. Turner, and B. W. Wah, "A design of a fast cellular associative memory for optical retrieval,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-27, pp. 800-815, Sept. 1978.
[89] M. Sakaguchi, N. Nishida, and T. Nemoto, "A new associative memory system utilizing holography,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-19, pp. 1174-1181, Dec. 1970.
[90] G. R. Knight, "Page-oriented associative holographic memory,"Appl. Opt., vol. 13, pp. 904-912, Apr. 1974.
[91] P. B. Berra and S. J. Marcinkowski, "Optical content addressable memories for managing an index to a very large data/knowledge base,"Data Eng. Bull., vol. 11, pp. 1-10, Mar. 1988.
[92] P. S. Guilfoyle and W. Jackson Wiley, "Combinatorial logic based optical computing,"Proc. SPIE, vol. 639-17, Apr. 1986.
[93] A. W. Lohman, "Polarization and optical logic,"Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 1594-1597, May 1986.
[94] A. W. Lohman and J. Weigelt, "Spatial filtering logic based on polarization,"Appl. Opt., vol. 26, pp. 131-134, Jan. 1987.
[95] K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, and L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, "Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,"Opt. Eng., vol. 26, pp. 385-391, May 1987.
[96] W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, and R. H. Anderson, "Two-dimensional magneto-optical spatial light modulator for signal processing,"Opt. Eng., vol. 22, pp. 485-490, July/Aug. 1983.
[97] R.L. Haskin and L.A. Hollaar, "Operational Characteristics of a Hardware-Based Pattern Matcher,"ACM Trans. Database Systems, Vol. 8, Mar. 1983, pp. 15-40.
[98] L. A. Hollaar, K. F. Smith, W. H. Chow, P. A. Emrath, and R. L. Haskin, "Architecture and operation of a large full-text information-retrieval system," inAdvanced Data Base Machine Architectures, D. K. Hsiao, Ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983, pp. 256- 299.
[99] P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, and P. S. Guilfoyle, "An optical system for full-text search," to appear inProc. 12th Int. Conf. Research and Development Inform. Retrieval, Cambridge, MA, June 1989.

Index Terms:
database systems; optical database machines; optical knowledge base machines; optics; knowledge base systems; storage; interconnection; processing; optical disks; page-oriented holographic memories; data communication; optical content addressable memories; full text processing; optoelectronic; optical interconnection; optical storage; optical processing; digital optical device development; database management systems; knowledge based systems; optical information processing
P.B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P.A. Mitkas, S.J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, "The Impact of Optics on Data and Knowledge Base Systems," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111-132, March 1989, doi:10.1109/69.43408
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.