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Discrimination of Real and Virtual Surfaces with Sinusoidal and Triangular Gratings Using the Fingertip and Stylus
April-June 2013 (vol. 6 no. 2)
pp. 181-192
Matthew B. Kocsis, Aircell, Bloomfield
Steven A. Cholewiak, Rutgers University - New Brunswick, Piscataway
Ryan M. Traylor, Bettelle Memorial Institude Huntsville Operations, Huntsville
Bernard D. Adelstein, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field
E. Daniel Hirleman, University of California - Merced, Merced
Hong Z. Tan, Purdue University, West Lafayette
Two-interval two-alternative forced-choice discrimination experiments were conducted separately for sinusoidal and triangular textured surface gratings from which amplitude (i.e., height) discrimination thresholds were estimated. Participants (group sizes: $(n = 4)$ to 7) explored one of these texture types either by fingertip on real gratings (Finger real), by stylus on real gratings (Stylus real), or by stylus on virtual gratings (Stylus virtual). The real gratings were fabricated from stainless steel by an electrical discharge machining process while the virtual gratings were rendered via a programmable force-feedback device. All gratings had a 2.5-mm spatial period. On each trial, participants compared test gratings with 55, 60, 65, or $(70 \mu{\rm m})$ amplitudes against a 50-$(\mu{\rm m})$ reference. The results indicate that discrimination thresholds did not differ significantly between sinusoidal and triangular gratings. With sinusoidal and triangular data combined, the average (mean $(\pm)$ standard error) for the Stylus-real threshold $((2.5 \pm 0.2 \mu{\rm m}))$ was significantly smaller $((p < 0.01))$ than that for the Stylus-virtual condition $((4.9 \pm 0.2 \mu{\rm m}))$. Differences between the Finger-real threshold $((3.8 \pm 0.2 \mu{\rm m}))$ and those from the other two conditions were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to better understand the differences in perceptual cues resulting from interactions with real and virtual gratings.
Index Terms:
Gratings,Haptic interfaces,Surface texture,Accuracy,Face,Rough surfaces,Surface roughness,amplitude discrimination,Haptic texture perception,real texture,virtual texture
Citation:
Matthew B. Kocsis, Steven A. Cholewiak, Ryan M. Traylor, Bernard D. Adelstein, E. Daniel Hirleman, Hong Z. Tan, "Discrimination of Real and Virtual Surfaces with Sinusoidal and Triangular Gratings Using the Fingertip and Stylus," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 181-192, April-June 2013, doi:10.1109/TOH.2012.31
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