The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - April-June (2013 vol.6)
pp: 156-166
J. C. Gwilliam , Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD, USA
M. Bianchi , Interdept. Res. Center “E. Piaggio, Univ. of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
L. K. Su , Dept. of Mech. Eng., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA
A. M. Okamura , Dept. of Mech. Eng., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA
ABSTRACT
Development of tactile displays to enhance palpation of lumps during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is challenging due to size and weight constraints, motivating a pneumatic actuation strategy. This work describes the quantitative and psychophysical assessment of an air-jet tactile display that creates a lump percept by directing pressurized air through an aperture onto the finger. The air pressure and aperture size are meant to control the hardness and size, respectively, of the perceived lump. Jet impingement pressure and flow rate were measured by capacitive tactile sensors and mass flow meters at varying aperture sizes and pressures. The air-jet pressure profile width evolves as jet theory predicts and is largely independent of supply pressure (and therefore jet exit velocity). The method of constant stimuli was used to determine the just noticeable differences (JNDs) for the air pressure and aperture size. Qualitative results indicate that subjects perceive the stimulus as a “lump-like” shape. Pressure JNDs ranged from 19.6-24.4 kPag and aperture size JNDs ranged from 0.50-0.66 mm. No significant correlation exists between the supply pressure and changes in perceived lump size. However, pressure JNDs show significant (p<; 0.001) inverse correlation with aperture size, with improved discrimination at larger apertures, where a greater finger pad area is stimulated.
INDEX TERMS
Apertures, Tactile sensors, Sensor arrays, Pressure measurement, Surgery, Size measurement,lump display, Haptics, RMIS, tactile display
CITATION
J. C. Gwilliam, M. Bianchi, L. K. Su, A. M. Okamura, "Characterization and Psychophysical Studies of an Air-Jet Lump Display", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.6, no. 2, pp. 156-166, April-June 2013, doi:10.1109/TOH.2012.71
REFERENCES
[1] A.R. Lanfranco, A.E. Castellanos, J.P. Desai, and W.C. Meyers, "Robotic Surgery: A Current Perspective," Annals of Surgery, vol. 239, no. 1, pp. 14-21, 2004.
[2] E.P. Westebring-van der Putten, R.H.M. Goossens, J.J. Jakimowicz, and J. Dankelman, "Haptics in Minimally Invasive Surgery—A Review," Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3-16, 2008.
[3] G. Tholey, J.P. Desai, and A.E. Castellanos, "Force Feedback Plays a Significant Role in Minimally Invasive Surgery: Results and Analysis," Annals of Surgery, vol. 241, no. 1, pp. 102-109, 2005.
[4] C. Wagner and R. Howe, "Force Feedback Benefit Depends on Experience in Multiple Degree of Freedom Robotic Surgery Task," IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1235-1240, Dec. 2007.
[5] S. Schostek, M.O. Schurr, and G.F. Buess, "Review on Aspects of Artificial Tactile Feedback in Laparoscopic Surgery," Medical Eng. and Physics, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 887-98, 2009.
[6] K. Hoyt, B. Castaneda, M. Zhang, P. Nigwekar, P.A. di Sant'agnese, J.V. Joseph, J. Strang, D.J. Rubens, and K.J. Parker, "Tissue Elasticity Properties as Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer," Cancer Biomarkers, vol. 4, nos. 4/5, pp. 213-25, 2008.
[7] M. Zhang, P. Nigwekar, B. Castaneda, K. Hoyt, J.V. Joseph, A. di Sant'agnese, E.M. Messing, J.G. Strang, D.J. Rubens, and K.J. Parker, "Quantitative Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Human Prostate Correlated with Histology," Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1033-1042, 2008.
[8] M.V. Ottermo, M.M. Ovstedal, T. Lango, O. Stavdahl, Y. Yavuz, T.A. Johansen, and R. Marvik, "The Role of Tactile Feedback in Laparoscopic Surgery," Surgical Laparoscopy Endoscopy and Percutaneous Techniques, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 390-400, 2006.
[9] D.M. Ota, "Laparoscopic Colectomy for Cancer: A Favorable Opinion," Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3-5, 1995.
[10] M.V. Ottermo, O. Stavdahl, and T.A. Johansen, "A Remote Palpation Instrument for Laparoscopic Surgery: Design and Performance," Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 259-272, 2009.
[11] R. Howe, W. Peine, D. Kantarinis, and J. Son, "Remote Palpation Technology," IEEE Eng. Medicine and Biology Magazine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 318-323, May/June 1995.
[12] S. Kim, K. Kyung, J. Park, and D. Kwon, "Real-Time Area-Based Haptic Rendering and the Augmented Tactile Display Device for a Palpation Simulator," Advanced Robotics, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 961-981, 2007.
[13] J. Killebrew, S. Bensmaia, J. Dammann, P. Denchev, S. Hsiao, J. Craig, and K. Johnson, "A Dense Array Stimulator to Generate Arbitrary Spatio-Temporal Tactile Stimuli," J. Neuroscience Methods, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 62-74, 2007.
[14] A.M. Okamura, "Haptic Feedback in Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery," Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 19, pp. 102-107, 2009.
[15] I. Sarakoglou, N.G. Tsagarakis, and D.G. Caldwell, "A Compact Tactile Display Suitable for Integration in VR and Teleoperation," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 1018-1024, 2012.
[16] Y. Kim, I. Oakley, and J. Ryu, "Human Perception of Pneumatic Tactile Cues," Advanced Robotics, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 807-828, 2008.
[17] C.-H. King, M.O. Culjat, M.L. Franco, J.W. Bisley, E. Dutson, and W.S. Grundfest, "Optimization of a Pneumatic Balloon Tactile Display for Robot-Assisted Surgery Based on Human Perception," IEEE Trans. Biomedical Eng., vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 2593-2600, Nov. 2008.
[18] L. Santos-Carreras, K. Leuenberger, P. Retornaz, R. Gassert, and H. Bleuler, "Design and Psychophysical Evaluation of a Tactile Pulse Display for Teleoperated Artery Palpation," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 5060-5066, 2010.
[19] M. Cohn, "Tactile Feedback for Teleoperation," Proc. SPIE, vol. 1833, pp. 240-254, 1992.
[20] G. Moy, C. Wagner, and R. Fearing, "A Compliant Tactile Display for Teletaction," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 3409-3415, 2000.
[21] K. Inoue, F. Kato, and S. Lee, "Haptic Device Using Flexible Sheet and Air Jet for Presenting Virtual Lumps under Skin," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 1749-1754, 2009.
[22] T. Davanipour and S. Sami, "Short Jet Impingement," J. Hydraulics Division, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 557-567, 1977.
[23] S. Pope, Turbulent Flows. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
[24] C.V. Tu and D.H. Wood, "Wall Pressure and Shear Stress Measurements Beneath an Impinging Jet," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 364-373, 1996.
[25] F. Wichmann and N. Hill, "The Psychometric Function: I. Fitting, Sampling, and Goodness of Fit," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1293-1313, 2001.
[26] F. Wichmann and N. Hill, "The Psychometric Function: II. Bootstrap-Based Confidence Intervals and Sampling," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1314-1329, 2001.
[27] I. Fründ, N.V. Haenel, and F.A. Wichmann, "Inference for Psychometric Functions in the Presence of Nonstationary Behavior," J. Vision, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1-19, 2011.
[28] M. Bianchi, J.C. Gwilliam, A. Degirmenci, and A.M. Okamura, "Characterization of an Air Jet Haptic Lump Display," Proc. IEEE Conf. Eng. Medicine and Biology Soc., pp. 3467-3470, 2011.
[29] H. Hussein, S. Capp, and W. George, "Velocity Measurements in a High-Reynolds-Number, Momentum-Conserving, Axisymmetric, Turbulent Jet," J. Fluid Mechanics, vol. 258, no. 1, pp. 31-75, 1994.
[30] N. Panchapakesan and J. Lumley, "Turbulence Measurements in Axisymmetric Jets of Air and Helium. Part 1. Air Jet," J. Fluid Mechanics, vol. 246, no. 1, pp. 197-223, 1993.
[31] N. Panchapakesan and J. Lumley, "Turbulence Measurements in Axisymmetric Jets of Air and Helium. Part 2. Helium Jet," J. Fluid Mechanics, vol. 246, no. 1, pp. 225-247, 1993.
[32] J.C. Gwilliam, A. Degirmenci, M. Bianchi, and A.M. Okamura, "Design and Control of an Air-Jet Lump Display," Proc. IEEE Haptics Symp., pp. 45-49, 2012.
[33] K. Provins and R. Morton, "Tactile Discrimination and Skin Temperature," J. Applied Physiology, vol. 15, pp. 155-160, 1960.
[34] J. Stevens, B. Green, and A. Krimsley, "Punctate Pressure Sensitivity: Effects of Skin Temperature," Sensory Processes, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 238-243, 1977.
[35] B. Green, "The Effect of Skin Temperature on Vibrotactile Sensitivity," Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 243-248, 1977.
[36] R.W. Van Boven and K.O. Johnson, "The Limit of Tactile Spatial Resolution in Humans: Grating Orientation Discrimination at the Lip, Tongue, and Finger," Neurology, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 2361-2361, 1994.
[37] J. Morley, A. Goodwin, and I. Darian-Smith, "Tactile Discrimination of Gratings," Experimental Brain Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 291-299, 1983.
[38] A.C. Grant, M.C. Thiagarajah, and K. Sathian, "Tactile Perception in Blind Braille Readers: A Psychophysical Study of Acuity and Hyperacuity Using Gratings and Dot Patterns," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 301-312, 2000.
7 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool