The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - First Quarter (2013 vol.6)
pp: 69-80
S. Okamoto , Dept. of Mech. Sci. & Eng., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan
Y. Yamada , Dept. of Mech. Sci. & Eng., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan
Tactile content will be delivered over the Internet in the near future. Vibrotactile material-like textures that resemble the surfaces of wood, leather, etc., are representative of such content. We performed lossy compression of texture data for reducing the data size. We confirmed the effectiveness of two compression strategies: quantization and truncation of data beneath a shifted perceptual threshold curve. In the quantization strategy, the amplitude spectra of vibrotactile textures could be quantized in 14 steps. This reduced the data size to approximately one quarter without any noticeable quality deterioration. The method for truncating frequency components with amplitudes smaller than a shifted perceptual threshold curve was also effective, and it was preferable to the automatic deletion of subthreshold amplitudes. We reduced the data size of vibrotactile material textures to 10-20 percent of their original size by combining the lossy data compression strategy with Huffman coding, which is a lossless data compression method. Lossy compression algorithms will enhance the online delivery of vibrotactile material-like textures by decreasing their data size without significant loss of quality.
Data compression, Quantization, Image coding, Materials, Surface texture, Compression algorithms, Haptic interfaces,threshold, Vibrotactile texture, quantization
S. Okamoto, Y. Yamada, "Lossy Data Compression of Vibrotactile Material-Like Textures", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.6, no. 1, pp. 69-80, First Quarter 2013, doi:10.1109/TOH.2012.18
[1] Y. Ikei, K. Wakamatsu, and S. Fukuda, "Vibratory Tactile Display of Image-Based Textures," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 53-61, Nov./Dec. 1997.
[2] D.G. Caldwell, N. Tsagarakis, and C. Giesler, "An Integrated Tactile/Shear Feedback Array for Stimulation of Finger Mechanoreceptor," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 287-292, 1999.
[3] M. Konyo, S. Tadokoro, and T. Takamori, "Artificial Tactile Feel Display Using Soft Gel Actuators," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, vol. 4, pp. 3416-3421, 2000.
[4] D. Allerkamp, G. Bottcher, F.-E. Wolter, A.C. Brady, J. Qu, and I.R. Summers, "A Vibrotactile Approach to Tactile Rendering," Visual Computer, vol. 23, pp. 97-108, 2007.
[5] L. Winfield, J. Glassmire, E.J. Colgate, and M. Peshkin, "T-pad: Tactile Pattern Display through Variable Friction Reduction," Proc. World Haptics Conf., pp. 421-426, 2007.
[6] M. Fukumoto and T. Sugimura, "Active Click: Tactile Feedback for Touch Panels," Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 121-122, 2001.
[7] I. Poupyrev, S. Maruyama, and J. Rekimoto, "Ambient Touch: Designing Tactile Interface for Handheld Device," Proc. 15th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 51-60, 2002.
[8] A. Nashel and S. Razzaque, "Tactile Virtual Buttons for Mobile Devices," Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 854-855, 2003.
[9] J.C. Lee, P.H. Dietz, D. Leigh, W.S. Yerazunis, and S.E. Hudson, "Haptic Pen: A Tactile Feedback Stylus for Touch Screens," Proc. 17th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 291-294, 2004.
[10] J. Luk, J. Pasquero, S. Little, K.E. MacLean, V. Levesque, and V. Hayward, "A Role for Haptics in Mobile Interaction: Initial Design Using a Handheld Tactile Display Prototype," Proc. ACM Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 171-180, 2006.
[11] S. Brewster, "Tactile Feedback for Mobile Interactions," Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 159-162, 2007.
[12] A.M. Okamura, M.R. Cutkosky, and J.T. Dennerlein, "Reality-Based Models for Vibration Feedback in Virtual Environments," IEEE/AME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 245-252, Sept. 2001.
[13] M. McMahan and K. Kuchenbecker, "Haptic Display of Realistic Tool Contact via Dynamically Compensated Control of a Dedicated Actuator," Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3170-3177, 2009.
[14] L.M. Brown, A. Sellen, R. Krishna, and R. Harper, "Exploring the Potential of Audio-Tactile Messaging for Remote Interpersonal Communication," Proc. 27th ACM Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1527-1530, 2009.
[15] Y. Hashimoto and H. Kajimoto, "A Novel Interface to Present Emotional Tactile Sensation to a Palm Using Air Pressure," Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2703-2708, 2008.
[16] K.R. Rao and J.J. Hwang, Techniques and Standards for Image, Video, and Audio Coding. Prentice Hall, 1996.
[17] I.R. Summers and C.M. Chanter, "A Broadband Tactile Array on the Fingertip," J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 2118-2126, 2002.
[18] J. Pasquero, J. Luk, V. Lévesque, Q. Wang, V. Hayward, and K.E. MacLean, "Haptically Enabled Handheld Information Display with Distributed Tactile Transducer," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 746-753, June 2007.
[19] S. Okamoto and Y. Yamada, "Perceptual Properties of Vibrotactile Material Texture: Effects of Amplitude Changes and Stimuli Beneath Detection Thresholds," Proc. IEEE/SICE Int'l Symp. System Integration, pp. 384-389, 2010.
[20] T. Tada, K. Cho, H. Shimoda, T. Sakata, and S. Sobue, "An Evaluation of JPEG Compression for On-Line Satellite Images Transmission," Proc. Int'l Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp., vol. 3, pp. 1515-1518, 1993.
[21] K.R. Persons, N.J. Hangiandreou, N.T. Charboneau, J.W. Charboneau, E.M. James, B.R. Douglas, A.P. Salmon, J.M. Knudsen, and B.J. Erickson, "Evaluation of Irreversible JPEG Compression for a Clinical Ultrasound Practice," J. Digital Imaging, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 15-21, 2005.
[22] P. Hinterseer and E. Steinbach, "Psychophysically Motivated Compression of Haptic Data," Proc. Joint Int'l COE/HAM-SFB453 Workshop Human Adaptive Mechatronichs and High Fidelity Telepresence, pp. 19-23, 2005.
[23] S. Hirche, P. Hinterseer, E. Steinbach, and M. Buss, "Transparent Data Reduction in Networked Telepresence and Teleaction Systems. Part i: Communication without Time Delay," Presence, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 523-531, 2007.
[24] V. Nitsch, J. Kammerl, B. Faerber, and E. Steinbach, "On the Impact of Haptic Data Reduction and Feedback Modality on Quality and Task Performance in a Telepresence and Teleaction System," Proc. Int'l Conf. Haptics: Generating and Perceiving Tangible Sensations (EuroHaptics), pp. 169-176, 2010.
[25] V. Nitsch, B. Färber, L. Geiger, P. Hinterseer, and E. Steinbach, "An Experimental Study of Lossy Compression in a Real Telepresence and Teleaction System," Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Their Applications, pp. 75-80, 2008.
[26] C. Shahabi, A. Ortega, and M.R. Kolahdouzan, "A Comparison of Different Haptic Compression Techniques," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia and Expo, vol. 1, pp. 657-660, 2002.
[27] Y. You and M.Y. Sung, "Haptic Data Transmission Based on the Prediction and Compression," Proc. Int'l Conf. Comm., pp. 1824-1828, 2008.
[28] M. Kuschel, P. Kremer, S. Hirche, and M. Buss, "Lossy Data Reduction Methods for Haptic Telepresence Systems," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 2933-2938, 2006.
[29] N. Jensen, G. Gaus, G. von Voigt, and S. Olbrich, "Design and Psychophysical Study of Volume Compression for Haptic Rendering," Proc. Second Joint EuroHaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 261-267, 2007.
[30] I. Arimoto, K. Hikichi, H. Morino, K. Sezaki, and Y. Yasuda, "Data Compression for Haptic Communication System (in Japanese)," technical report of the IEICE, vol. DSP2001-147, pp. 17-22, 2001.
[31] C.W. Borst, "Predictive Coding for Efficient Host-Device Communication in a Pneumatic Force-Feedback Display," Proc. IEEE First Joint Eurohaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (WorldHaptics), pp. 596-599, 2005.
[32] S.A. Cholewiak, K. Kim, H.Z. Tan, and B.D. Adelstein, "A Frequency-Domain Analysis of Haptic Gratings," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3-14, Jan.-Mar. 2010.
[33] S.J. Bensmaïa and M. Hollins, "Complex Tactile Waveform Discrimination," J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 108, pp. 1236-1245, 2000.
[34] J.C. Craig, "Difference Threshold for Intensity of Tactile Stimuli," Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 150-152, 1972.
[35] G.A. Gescheider, S.J. Bolanowski, J.J. Zwislocki, K.L. Hall, and C. Mascia, "The Effects of Masking on the Growth of Vibrotactile Sensation Magnitude and on the Amplitude Difference Limen: A Test of the Equal Sensation Magnitude-Equal Difference Limen Hypothesis," J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 1479-1488, 1994.
[36] S. Bensmaïa and M. Hollins, "Pacinian Representations of Fine Surface Texture," Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 842-854, 2005.
[37] S. Bensmaïa, M. Hollins, and J. Yau, "Vibrotactile Intensity and Frequency Information in the Pacinian System: A Psychophysical Model," Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 828-841, 2005.
[38] M. Wiertlewski, J. Lozada, and V. Hayward, "The Spatial Spectrum of Tangential Skin Displacement Can Encode Tactual Texture," IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 461-472, June 2011.
[39] Recommendation ITU-R BT.500-12, Methodology for the Subjective Assessment of the Quality of Television Pictures, Int'l Telecomm. Union, 2009.
[40] N.A. Macmillan and C.D. Creelman, Detection Theory - A User's Guide, second ed. Psychology Press, 2009.
[41] J.J. Collins, T.T. Imhoff, and P. Grigg, "Noise-Enhanced Tactile Sensation," Nature, vol. 383, p. 770, 1996.
[42] C. Wells, L.M. Ward, R. Chua, and J.T. Inglis, "Touch Noise Increases Vibrotactile Sensitivity in Old And Young," Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 313-320, 2005.
[43] G.A. Gescheider, R.T. Verrillo, and C.L. Van Doren, "Prediction of Vibrotactile Masking Functions," J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 1421-1426, 1982.
[44] P. Dyhre-Poulsen, "Perception of Tactile Stimuli before Ballistic and during Tracking Movements," Active Touch, G. Gordon, ed., Pergamon Press, pp. 171-176, 1978.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool