The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - Fourth Quarter (2012 vol.5)
pp: 365-375
Tom Froese , University of Tokyo, Tokyo and University of Sussex, Brighton
Marek McGann , MIC, University of Limerick, Limerick
William Bigge , University of Sussex, Brighton
Adam Spiers , University of the West of England
Anil K. Seth , University of Sussex, Brighton
ABSTRACT
The cognitive sciences are increasingly coming to terms with the embodied, embedded, extended, and experiential aspects of the mind. Exemplifying this shift, the enactive approach points to an essential role of goal-directed bodily activity in the generation of meaningful perceptual experience, i.e., sense-making. Here, building on recent insights into the transformative effects of practical tool-use, we make use of the enactive approach in order to provide a definition of an enactive interface in terms of augmented sense-making. We introduce such a custom-built interface, the Enactive Torch, and present a study of its experiential effects. The results demonstrate that the user experience is not adequately captured by any standardly assumed perceptual modality; rather, it is a new feeling that is mediated by the design of the device and shaped by the overall situation of the task. Taken together these findings show that there is much to be gained by synergies between engineering and the cognitive sciences in the creation of new experience-centered technology. We suggest that the guiding principle should be the design of interfaces that serve as a transparent medium for augmenting our natural skills of interaction with the world, instead of requiring conscious attention to the interface as an opaque object in the world.
INDEX TERMS
Haptic interfaces, Human computer interaction, Vibration measurement, User centered design, Information processing, user-centered design, Deployment, usage experience, Haptic I/O, human-centered computing
CITATION
Tom Froese, Marek McGann, William Bigge, Adam Spiers, Anil K. Seth, "The Enactive Torch: A New Tool for the Science of Perception", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.5, no. 4, pp. 365-375, Fourth Quarter 2012, doi:10.1109/TOH.2011.57
REFERENCES
[1] P.E. Agre, Computation and Human Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997.
[2] M. Auvray, S. Hanneton, C. Lenay, and K. O'Regan, "There is Something Out There: Distal Attribution in Sensory Substitution, Twenty Years Later," J. Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 505-521, 2005.
[3] M. Auvray, S. Hanneton, and J.K. O'Regan, "Learning to Perceive with a Visuo-Auditory Substitution System: Localisation and Object Recognition with 'The vOICe'," Perception, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 416-430, 2007.
[4] M. Auvray and E. Myin, "Perception with Compensatory Devices: From Sensory Substitution to Sensorimotor Extension," Cognitive Science, vol. 33, pp. 1036-1058, 2009.
[5] M. Auvray, D. Philipona, J.K. O'Regan, and C. Spence, "The Perception of Space and form Recognition in a Simulated Environment: The Case of Minimalist Sensory-substitution Devices," Perception, vol. 36, pp. 1736-1751, 2007.
[6] M. Auvray and C. Spence, "The Multisensory Perception of Flavor," Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1016-1031, 2008.
[7] P. Bach-y-Rita, C.C. Collins, F.A. Saunders, B. White, and L. Scadden, "Vision Substitution by Tactile Image Projection," Nature, vol. 221, no. 5184, pp. 963-964, 1969.
[8] P. Bach-y-Rita, M.E. Tyler, and K.A. Kaczmarek, "Seeing with the Brain," Int'l J. Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 285-295, 2003.
[9] A. Berti and F. Frassinetti, "When Far Becomes Near: Remapping of Space by Tool Use," J. Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 415-420, 2000.
[10] J. Bird, S. Holland, P. Marshall, Y. Rogers, and A. Clark, "Feel the Force: Using Tactile Technologies to Investigate the Extended Mind," Proc. Devices that Alter Perception Workshop (DAP '08), pp. 1-4, 2008.
[11] N. Block, "Tactile Sensation via Spatial Perception," Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 285-286, 2003.
[12] L. Cardenali, F. Frassinetti, C. Brozzoli, C. Urquizar, A.C. Roy, and A. Farnè, "Tool-Use Induces Morphological Updating of the Body Schema," Current Biology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. R478-R479, 2009.
[13] A. Clark, Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence. Oxford Univ. Press, 2003.
[14] A. Clark, Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. Oxford Univ. Press, 2008.
[15] G. Colombetti, "Enaction, Sense-Making and Emotion," Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science, J. Stewart, O. Gapenne, and E.A. Di Paolo eds., pp. 145-164, The MIT Press, 2010.
[16] R. Coyne, Designing Information Technology in the Postmodern Age: From Method to Metaphor. MIT Press, 1995.
[17] E.A. Di Paolo, "Extended Life," Topoi, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 9-21, 2009.
[18] E.A. Di Paolo, M. Rohde, and H. De Jaegher, "Horizons for the Enactive Mind: Values, Social Interaction, and Play," Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science, J. Stewart, O. Gapenne and E.A. Di Paolo eds., pp. 33-87, The MIT Press, 2010.
[19] H.L. Dreyfus, Being-in-the-World: A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division 1. The MIT Press, 1991.
[20] H.L. Dreyfus and S.E. Dreyfus, "Peripheral Vision: Expertise in Real World Contexts," Organization Studies, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 779-792, 2005.
[21] A. Farnè, A. Iriki, and E. Làdavas, "Shaping Multisensory Action-Space with Tools: Evidence from Patients with Cross-Modal Extinction," Neuropsychologia, vol. 43, pp. 238-248, 2005.
[22] T. Froese and E.A. Di Paolo, "The Enactive Approach: Theoretical Sketches from Cell to Society," Pragmatics and Cognition, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-36, 2011.
[23] T. Froese, C. Gould, and A.K. Seth, "Validating and Calibrating First- and Second-Person Methods in the Science of Consciousness," J. Consciousness Studies, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 38-64, 2011.
[24] T. Froese and A. Spiers, "Toward a Phenomenological Pragmatics of Enactive Perception," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Enactive Interfaces (Enactive '07), pp. 105-108, 2007.
[25] R.B. Gillespie and S. O'Modhrain, "Embodied Cognition as a Motivating Perspective for Haptic Interaction Design: A Position Paper," Proc. IEEE World Haptics Conf., 2011.
[26] G. Guarniero, "Experience of Tactile Vision," Perception, vol. 3, pp. 101-104, 1974.
[27] V. Havelange, "The Ontological Constitution of Cognition and the Epistemological Constitution of Cognitive Science: Phenomenology, Enaction, and Technology," Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science, J. Stewart, O. Gapenne, and E.A. Di Paolo eds., pp. 335-360, The MIT Press, 2010.
[28] E. Hutchins, Cognition in the Wild. The MIT Press, 1995.
[29] E. Hutchins, "Enaction, Imagination, and Insight," Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science, J. Stewart, O. Gapenne, and E.A. Di Paolo eds., pp. 425-450, The MIT Press, 2010.
[30] A. Iriki, M. Tanaka, and Y. Iwamura, "Coding of Modified Body Schema during Tool Use by Macaque Postcentral Neurones," Neuroreport, vol. 7, no. 14, pp. 2325-2330, 1996.
[31] C. Lenay, O. Gapenne, S. Hanneton, C. Marque, and C. Genouëlle, "Sensory Substitution: Limits and Perspectives," Touching for Knowing: Cognitive Psychology of Haptic Manual Perception, Y. Hatwell, A. Streri, and E. Gentaz eds., pp. 275-292, John Benjamins, 2003.
[32] C. Lenay and P. Steiner, "Beyond the Internalism/Externalism Debate: The Constitution of the Space of Perception," Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 19, pp. 938-952, 2010.
[33] M.R. Longo and S.F. Lourenco, "On the Nature of Near Space: Effects of Tool Use and the Transition to Far Space," Neuropsychologia, vol. 44, pp. 977-981, 2006.
[34] A. Maravita and A. Iriki, "Tools for the Body (Schema)," Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 79-86, 2004.
[35] J. McCarthy and P. Wright, Technology as Experience. MIT Press, 2007.
[36] M. McGann, "Enactive Theorists Do It on Purpose: Toward an Enactive Account of Goals and goal-directedness," Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 463-483, 2007.
[37] M. McGann, "Perceptual Modalities: Modes of Presentation or Modes of Interaction?," J. Consciousness Studies, vol. I7, pp. 72-94, 2010.
[38] P.B.L. Meijer, "An Experimental System for Auditory Image Representations," IEEE Trans. Biomedical Eng., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 112-121, Feb. 1992.
[39] T. Metzinger, "Phenomenal Transparency and Cognitive Self-Reference," Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 353-393, 2003.
[40] H. Mori, S. Kotani, K. Saneyoshi, H. Sanada, Y. Kobayashi, and A. Mototsune, "Research and Development Project for Practical use of Robotic Travel Aid for the Visually Impaired," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Disability, Virtual Reality and Assoc. Technologies, pp. 123-130, 2002.
[41] A. Noë, Action in Perception. The MIT Press, 2004.
[42] C. Petitmengin, "Describing One'S Subjective Experience in the Second Person: An Interview Method for the Science of Consciousness," Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, vol. 5, nos. 3/4, pp. 229-269, 2006.
[43] J. Prinz, "Putting the Brakes on Enactive Perception," Psyche, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2006.
[44] M.J. Proulx, P. Stoerig, E. Ludowig, and I. Knoll, "Seeing 'Where' through the Ears: Effects of Learning-By-Doing and Long-Term Sensory Deprivation on Localization Based on Image-to-Sound Substitution," PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 3, p. e1840, 2008.
[45] Psychological Soc. of Ireland, Code of Professional Ethics, Retrieved 30th Sept. 2011 from: http://www.psihq.ie2010%20Code% 20of%20Ethics.doc , 2010.
[46] A. Spiers, "A Tactile Navigational Aid for Visually Impaired People," BSc dissertation, Dept. of Cybernetics, Univ. of Reading, United Kingdom, 2004.
[47] J. Stewart, "Foundational Issues in Enaction as a Paradigm for Cognitive Science: From the Origin of Life to Consciousness and Writing," Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science, J. Stewart, O. Gapenne, and E.A. Di Paolo eds., pp. 1-32, The MIT Press, 2010.
[48] J. Stewart, A. Khatchatourov, and C. Lenay, "Enaction and Engineering," Interdisciplines http://www.interdisciplines.org/enaction/ papers7, [Accessed: Feb. 2, 2010], 2004.
[49] E. Thompson, Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind. The MIT Press, 2007.
[50] E. Thompson and M. Stapleton, "Making Sense of Sense-Making: Reflections on Enactive and Extended Mind Theories," Topoi, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 23-30, 2009.
[51] G. Tononi, "Consciousness as Integrated Information: A Provisional Manifesto," Biological Bull., vol. 215, pp. 216-242. 2008.
[52] F.J. Varela, E. Thompson, and E. Rosch, The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. The MIT Press, 1991.
[53] J. Ward and P. Meijer, "Visual Experiences in the Blind Induced by an Auditory Sensory Substitution Device," Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 492-500, 2010.
[54] A. Weber and F.J. Varela, "Life After Kant: Natural Purposes and the Autopoietic Foundations of Biological Individuality," Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 97-125, 2002.
[55] J.K. Witt, D.R. Proffitt, and W. Epstein, "Tool Use Affects Perceived Distance, But Only when You Intend to Use It," J. Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 880-888, 2005.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool