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Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces
Third Quarter 2012 (vol. 5 no. 3)
pp. 274-284
S. Ozgur Oguz, Koc University, Istanbul
Ayse Kucukyilmaz, Koc University, Istanbul
Tevfik Metin Sezgin, Koc University, Istanbul
Cagatay Basdogan, Koc University, Istanbul
An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human negotiation scenarios. For this purpose, we introduce a two-party negotiation game specifically built for studying the effectiveness of haptic and audio-visual cues in conveying negotiation related behaviors. The game is centered around a real-time continuous two-party negotiation scenario based on the existing game-theory and negotiation literature. During the game, humans are confronted with a computer opponent, which can display different behaviors, such as concession, competition, and negotiation. Through a user study, we show that the behaviors that are associated with human negotiation can be incorporated into human-computer interaction, and the addition of haptic cues provides a statistically significant increase in the human-recognition accuracy of machine-displayed behaviors. In addition to aspects of conveying these negotiation-related behaviors, we also focus on and report game-theoretical aspects of the overall interaction experience. In particular, we show that, as reported in the game-theory literature, certain negotiation strategies such as tit-for-tat may generate maximum combined utility for the negotiating parties, providing an excellent balance between the energy spent by the user and the combined utility of the negotiating parties.

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Index Terms:
Haptic interfaces,Computers,Humans,Games,Computational modeling,Robots,Force,haptic negotiation.,Human factors,experimentation,haptic I/O,haptic user interfaces,haptic guidance,dynamic systems and control,multimodal systems,virtual environment modeling,performance
S. Ozgur Oguz, Ayse Kucukyilmaz, Tevfik Metin Sezgin, Cagatay Basdogan, "Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 274-284, Third Quarter 2012, doi:10.1109/TOH.2012.37
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