This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Electrotactile Feedback for Handheld Devices with Touch Screen and Simulation of Roughness
Jan.-March 2012 (vol. 5 no. 1)
pp. 6-13
M. Ercan Altinsoy, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden
Sebastian Merchel, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden
We present a novel electrotactile display that can be integrated into current handheld devices with touch screens. In this display, tactile information is presented to the fingertip of the user by transmitting small currents through electrodes. Experiments were conducted to investigate the perception of simulated textures using this electrotactile display technique. One fundamental feature of texture, which is the focus of this study, is roughness. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the relationship between electrotactile stimulation parameters such as current and pulse frequency and the perception of roughness. An increase in the current magnitude resulted in an increase in perceived roughness. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate parameter combinations of electrotactile stimuli can be used to simulate textures. Subjects adjusted the intensity and frequency of the current stimuli until the simulated textures were perceived as being equal to reference textures such as sandpapers of varying grit numbers and grooved woods with varying groove widths. Subjects tended to find an electrotactile stimulus with a high current magnitude and a low pulse frequency more suitable to represent rough surfaces. They tended to find just-perceptible current magnitudes suitable for very smooth surfaces and did not show a preference for any frequency.

[1] M.E. Altinsoy and S. Merchel, "Audiotactile Feedback Design for Touch Screens," Proc. Int'l Workshop Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, M.E. Altinsoy, U. Jekosch, and S. Brewster, eds., pp. 136-144, 2009.
[2] E. Hoggan, S.A. Brewster, and J. Johnston, "Investigating the Effectiveness of Tactile Feedback for Mobile Touchscreens," Proc. 28th Ann. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2008.
[3] R. Leung, K. MacLean, M. Bertelsen, and M. Saubhasik, "Evaluation of Haptically Augmented Touchscreen GUI Elements under Cognitive Load," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Multimodal Interfaces, pp. 374-381, 2007.
[4] B.M. Mortimer, G.A. Zets, and R.W. Cholewiak, "Vibrotactile Transduction and Transducers," J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 121, pp. 2970-2977, 2007.
[5] J. Rantala, R. Raisamo, J. Lylykangas, V. Surakka, J. Raisamo, K. Salminen, T. Pakkanen, and A. Hippula, "Methods for Presenting Braille Characters on a Mobile Device with a Touchscreen and Tactile Feedback," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 28-39, Jan.-Mar. 2009.
[6] J. Pasquero, J. Luk, V. Levesque, Q. Wang, V. Hayward, and K. MacLean, "Haptically Enabled Handheld Information Display with Distributed Tactile Transducer," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 746-753, June 2007.
[7] P. Laitinen and J. Mäenpää, "Enabling Mobile Haptic Design: Piezoelectric Actuator Technology Properties in Hand Held Devices," Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Their Applications (HAVE), pp. 40-43, 2006.
[8] H. Yao, D. Grant, and M. Cruz, "Perceived Vibration Strength in Mobile Devices: The Effect of Weight and Frequency," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 56-62, Jan.-Mar. 2010.
[9] J. Ryu, J. Jung, G. Park, and S. Choi, "Psychophysical Model for Vibrotactile Rendering in Mobile Devices," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 364-387, Aug. 2010.
[10] N. Harris, "Applications of Bending Wave Technology in Human Interface Devices," Proc. AES 126th Convention, p. 7658, May 2009.
[11] N.T. Olien, A. Visitacion, and A. Kapelus, "Planar Suspension of a Haptic Touch Screen," US Patent 2010/0245254 A1, 2010.
[12] A. Modarres, J.M. Cruz-Hernandez, D.A. Grant, and C. Ramstein, "Haptic Feedback Using Composite Piezoelectric Actuator," US Patent 2010/045584, 2010.
[13] B.M. Schena, "Haptic Devices Using Electroactive Polymers," US Patent 2001/016974, 2001.
[14] T. Nara, M. Takasaki, T. Maeda, T. Higuchi, S. Ando, and S. Tachi, "Surface Acoustic Wave Tactile Display," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 56-63, Nov./Dec. 2001.
[15] L. Winfield, J. Glassmire, J. Colgate, and M. Peshkin, "TPaD: Tactile Pattern Display through Variable Friction Reduction," Proc. Second Joint Eurohaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2007.
[16] E.C. Chubb, J.E. Colgate, and M.A. Peshkin, "ShiverPaD: A Glass Haptic Surface that Produces Shear Forces on a Bare Finger," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 189-198, July-Sept. 2010.
[17] N.D. Marchuk, J.E. Colgate, and M.A. Peshkin, "Friction Measurements on a Large Area TPaD," IEEE Haptics Symp., pp. 317-320, 2010.
[18] K.A. Kaczmarek, J.G. Webster, P. Bach-y-Rita, and W.J. Tompkins, "Electrotactile and Vibrotactile Displays for Sensory Substitution Systems," IEEE Trans. Biomedical Eng., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1-16, Jan. 1991.
[19] K.A. Kaczmarek, M.E. Tyler, A. Brisben, and K.O. Johnson, "The Afferent Neural Response to Electrotactile Stimuli: Preliminary Results," IEEE Trans. Rehabilitation Eng., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 268-270, June 2000.
[20] U.O. Okpara, K.A. Kaczmarek, and M.E. Tyler, "Two Perceptual Dimensions Result from Manipulating Electrotactile Current and Frequency," Proc. 33rd IEEE Ann. Northeast Bioeng. Conf., 2007.
[21] K.A. Kaczmarek, K.K. Nammi, A.K. Agarwal, M.E. Tyler, S.J. Haase, and D.J. Beebe, "Polarity Effect in Electrovibration for Tactile Display," IEEE Trans. Biomedical Eng., vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 2047-2054, Oct. 2006.
[22] V. Mäkinen, P. Suvanto, and J. Linjama, "Interface Apparatus for Touch Input and Tactile Output Communication," Int. Patent WO/2009/141502, 2009.
[23] O. Bau, I. Poupyrev, A. Israr, and C. Harrison, "TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfaces," Proc. 23rd Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology (UIST '10), 2010.
[24] A. Yamamoto, S. Nagasawa, H. Yamamoto, and T. Higuchi, "Electrostatic Tactile Display with Thin Film Slider and Its Application to Tactile Telepresentation Systems," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 168-177, Mar.-Apr. 2006.
[25] K.A. Kaczmarek and S.J. Haase, "Pattern Identification as a Function of Stimulation Current on a Fingertip-Scanned Electrotactile Display," IEEE Trans. Neural Systems Rehabilitation Eng. vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 269-275, Sept. 2003.
[26] K.A. Kaczmarek and M.E. Tyler, "Effect of Electrode Geometry and Intensity Control Method on Comfort of Electrotactile Stimulation on the Tongue," Proc. ASME Dynamic System and Control Division, pp. 1239-43, 2000.
[27] N. Vuillerme, N. Pinsault, O. Chenu, J. Demongeot, Y. Payan, and Y. Danilov, "Sensory Supplementation System Based on Electrotactile Tongue Biofeedback of Head Position for Balance Control," Neuroscience Letter, vol. 431, no. 3, pp. 206-210, 2008.
[28] S.S. Stevens and J. Harris, "The Scaling of Subjective Roughness and Smoothness," J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 64, pp. 494-498, 1962.
[29] S.J. Lederman and M.M. Taylor, "Fingertip Force, Surface Geometry and the Perception of Roughness by Active Touch," Perception Psychophysics, vol. 12, pp. 401-408, 1972.
[30] M. Minsky and S.J. Lederman, "Simulated Haptic Textures: Roughness," Proc. ASME Int'l Mechanical Eng. Congress: Dynamic Systems and Control Division, vol. 58, pp. 421-426, 1996.
[31] M.R. McGee, "Investigating a Multimodal Solution for Improving Force Feedback Generated Textures," PhD dissertation, Univ. of Glasgow, 2002.
[32] R.L. Klatzky, S. Lederman, C. Hamilton, M. Grindley, and R.H. Swendsen, "Feeling Textures through a Probe: Effects of Probe and Surface Geometry and Exploratory Factors," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 65, pp. 613-631, 2003.
[33] T. Ahmaniemi, J. Marila, and V. Lantz, "Design of Dynamic Vibrotactile Textures," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 245-256, Oct.-Dec. 2010.
[34] G. Campion and V. Hayward, "Fast Calibration of Haptic Texture Synthesis Algorithms," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 85-93, Apr.-June 2009.
[35] S. Merchel and M.E. Altinsoy, "Vorrichtung zur Verarbeitung und Wiedergabe von Signalen in elektronischen Systemen zur elektrotaktilen Stimulation," Germany Patent DE 10 2009 020 796, 2010.
[36] H. Kajimoto, "Electro-Tactile Display with Real-Time Impedance Feedback," Proc. EuroHaptics Conf., pp. 285-291, 2010.
[37] M.A. Schaning and K.A. Kaczmarek, "A High-Voltage Bipolar Transconductance Amplifier for Electrotactile Stimulation," IEEE Trans. Biomedical Eng., vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2433-2443, Oct. 2008.
[38] J.P. Reilly, Applied Bioelectricity, second ed. Springer, 1998.
[39] J. Zwislocki and D. Goodman, "Absolute Scaling of Sensory Magnitudes: A Validation," Perception Psychophysics, vol. 28, pp. 28-38, 1980.
[40] K.U. Kyung and D.S. Kwon, "Perceived Roughness and Correlation with Frequency and Amplitude of Vibrotactile Stimuli," Proc. EuroHaptics Conf., pp. 277-282, 2006.
[41] K.A. Kaczmarek, "Electrotactile Adaptation on the Abdomen: Preliminary Results," IEEE Trans. Rehabilitation Eng., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 499-505, Dec. 2000.
[42] D.G. Buma, J.R. Buitenweg, and P.H. Veltink, "Intermittent Stimulation Delays Adaptation to Electrocutaneous Sensory Feedback," IEEE Trans. Neural Systems Rehabilitation Eng., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 435-441, Sept. 2007.

Index Terms:
Mobile devices, touch screen, electrotactile feedback, roughness perception, texture reproduction.
M. Ercan Altinsoy, Sebastian Merchel, "Electrotactile Feedback for Handheld Devices with Touch Screen and Simulation of Roughness," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 6-13, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/TOH.2011.56
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.