This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Collocation Accuracy of Visuo-Haptic System: Metrics and Calibration
October-December 2011 (vol. 4 no. 4)
pp. 321-326
Dangxiao Wang, State Key Lab. of Virtual Reality Technol. & Syst., Beihang Univ., Beijing, China
Yuru Zhang, State Key Lab. of Virtual Reality Technol. & Syst., Beihang Univ., Beijing, China
Wanlin Zhou, State Key Lab. of Virtual Reality Technol. & Syst., Beihang Univ., Beijing, China
Hui Zhao, State Key Lab. of Virtual Reality Technol. & Syst., Beihang Univ., Beijing, China
Zhongyuan Chen, State Key Lab. of Virtual Reality Technol. & Syst., Beihang Univ., Beijing, China
Human resolution of collocation error between haptic and stereoscopic displays influences the design of visuo-haptic rendering algorithms, yet it is not well characterized. In the present study, we propose quantified metrics to measure the visuo-haptic collocation error and a prototype based on half-silvered mirror is established to validate the metrics. After defining collocation error in terms of the spatial correspondence between a tool and a surface, a mathematical model is derived that relates collocation error to the visual and haptic rendering modules within the computational pipeline. A calibration method consisting of Perspective Calibration (PC) and Model Calibration (MC) is then proposed to compensate for manufacturing and assembly tolerances. Based on measurement values by a precise measurement apparatus, i.e., the FARO Arm, parameters for the PC and MC were determined. System performance is evaluated by measuring the collocation error between a real handle and its visual avatar. The average collocation error was 1.8 mm within the XwYwOw plane, and the error never exceeded 7 mm within an 80 mm × 80 mm × 80 mm workspace.

[1] R.J. van Beers, A.C. Sittig, and J.J. Denier van der Gon, "The Precision of Proprioceptive Position Sense," Experimental Brain Research, vol. 122, pp. 367-377, 1998.
[2] M. Harders, G. Bianchi, B. Knoerlein, and G. Szekely, "Calibration, Registration, and Synchronization for High Precision Augmented Reality Haptics," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 138-149, Jan./Feb. 2009.
[3] J.R. Vallino and C.M. Brown, "Haptics in Augmented Reality," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS '99), pp. 195-200, 1999.
[4] Z. Shi, S. Hirche, W.X. Schneider, and H. Muller, "Influence of Visuomotor Action on Visual-Haptic Simultaneous Perception: A Psychophysical Study," Proc. Int'l Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 65-70, Mar. 2008.
[5] M.L.C. Vogels Ingrid, "Detection of Temporal Delays in Visual-Haptic Interfaces, Human Factors," Human Factors, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 118-134, 2004.
[6] M. Congedo, A. Lécuyer, and E. Gentaz, "The Influence of Spatial De-Location on Perceptual Integration of Vision and Touch," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 353-357, June 2006.
[7] Y. Yokokohji, R.L. Hollis, and T. Kanade, "WYSIWYF Display: A Visual/Haptic Interface to Virtual Environment," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 412-434, Aug. 1999.
[8] J. Groen and P.J. Werkhoven, "Visuomotor Adaptation to Virtual Hand Positioning in Interactive Virtual Environment," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 429-446, 1998.
[9] J.P. Rolland, F.A. Biocca, T. Barlow, and A. Kancherla, "Quantification of Adaptation to Virtual-Eye Location in See-Thru Head-Mounted Displays," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp. (VRAIS '95), pp. 56-66, 1995.
[10] C. Luciano, P. Banerjee, L. Florea, and G. Dawe, "Design of the ImmersiveTouch: A High-Performance Haptic Augmented Virtual Reality System," Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Human-Computer Interaction, July 2005.
[11] M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visuo-Haptic Display Using Head-Mounted Projector," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, 2000.
[12] R.T. Azuma, "A Survey of Augmented Reality," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 355-385, 1997.
[13] S.T. Clanton, D.C. Wang, V.S. Chib, Y. Matsuoka, and G.D. Stetten, "Optical Merger of Direct Vision with Virtual Images for Scaled Tele-Operation," IEEE Trans. Visual and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 277-285, Mar./Apr. 2006.
[14] A. Johnson, D. Sandin, G. Dawe, T. DeFanti, D. Pape, Z. Qiu, S. Thongrong, and D. Plepys, "Developing the PARIS: Using the CAVE to Prototype a New VR Display," Proc. Immersive Projection Technology (IPT) Workshop, 2000.
[15] F.J.D. Bogsanyi and A.M Krumm-heller, "Scale and Collocation in Hapto-Visual Environments," Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VII, vol. 3957, pp.454-463, 2000.
[16] R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, "Recent Advances in Augmented Reality," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 34-47, Nov./Dec. 2001.
[17] W. Ji, R.L. WilliamsII, and J.N. Howell, "3D Stereo Viewing Evaluation for the Virtual Haptic Back Project," Proc. IEEE Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 251-258, 2006.
[18] C. Sandor, S. Uchiyama, and H. Yamamoto, "Visuo-Haptic Systems: Half-Mirrors Considered Harmful," WHC '07: Proc. Second Joint EuroHaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 292-297, Mar. 2007.
[19] R. Pausch, T. Crea, and M. Conway, "A Literature Survey for Virtual Environments: Military Flight Simulator Visual Systems and Simulator Sickness," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 344-363, 1992.
[20] M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, "Merging Virtual Objects with the Real World," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 203-210, 1992.
[21] T. Nojima, D. Sekiguchi, M. Inami, and S. Tachi, "The SmartTool: A System for Augmented Reality of Haptics," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality (VR '02) Conf., pp. 67-72, 2002.
[22] M. Adcock, M. Hutchins, and C. Gunn, "Augmented Reality Haptics: Using AR Toolkit for Display of Haptic Applications," Proc. IEEE Second Int'l Augmented Reality Toolkit Workshop, pp. 1-2, 2003.
[23] D. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Wang, "Analysis of Registration Accuracy for Collocated Haptic-Visual Display System," Proc. 16th Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, Mar. 2008.
[24] http://developer.nvidia.com/object3d_stereo_dev.html , 2011.
[25] "Platinum FaroArm Introduction," FARO Technologies Inc, http://www.faro.comcontent.aspx?ct=us&content=pro&item=2&subitem=2 , 2007.

Index Terms:
three-dimensional displays,avatars,calibration,haptic interfaces,performance evaluation,rendering (computer graphics),XwYwOw plane,collocation accuracy,visuo-haptic system,human resolution,haptic display,stereoscopic display,visuo-haptic rendering algorithms,quantified metrics,visuo-haptic collocation error,half-silvered mirror,spatial correspondence,mathematical model,visual rendering modules,haptic rendering modules,computational pipeline,calibration method,perspective calibration,PC,model calibration,MC,manufacturing tolerance,assembly tolerance,measurement values,precise measurement apparatus,FARO Arm,system performance,performanc evaluation,visual avatar,Haptic interfaces,Calibration,Data visualization,Transforms,Rendering (computer graphics),perspective calibration.,Visuo-haptic system,spatial collocation error,collocation accuracy,model calibration
Citation:
Dangxiao Wang, Yuru Zhang, Wanlin Zhou, Hui Zhao, Zhongyuan Chen, "Collocation Accuracy of Visuo-Haptic System: Metrics and Calibration," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 321-326, Oct.-Dec. 2011, doi:10.1109/TOH.2011.17
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.