1. Human haptic perception and motor performance as relevant to medical examinations and procedures. This includes characterization of the nature of haptic information, and how it is perceived, which is necessary to understand how medical professionals use haptics in medical examinations and interventions.
2. Haptic systems and the role of haptics in training and evaluating clinical skills. Haptic simulators address a growing need for effective training and evaluation of clinical skills. Such simulators can be applied in a wide variety of medical professions and disciplines, including surgery, interventional radiology, anaesthesiology, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and the allied health professions. These simulators rely on both technology development (devices, software, and systems) and an understanding of how humans use haptic feedback to perform established clinical skills or learn novel skills.
3. Using haptics to improve the performance of medical interventions. Current trends in interventional medicine remove direct contact between the patient and the clinician. Bilateral teleoperators and “smart” instruments that use tactile sensing/display devices, sensory substitutions systems, and other methods to enhance haptic feedback to a clinician should improve the performance of interventions.
A.M. Okamura is with the Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. E-mail: email@example.com.
C. Basdogan is with the College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, 34450 Turkey. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
S. Baillie is with the Royal Veterinary College, London, AL9 7TA United Kingdom. E-mail: email@example.com.
W.S. Harwin is with the School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY, United Kingdom.
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Allison M. Okamura received the BS degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1994, and the MS and PhD degrees from Stanford University, Stanford, CA, in 1996 and 2000, respectively, all in mechanical engineering. She is currently an associate professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Stanford University, and was previously at The Johns Hopkins University. She has been an associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Haptics, and an editor of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Professor Okamura received the 2004 US National Science Foundation CAREER Award, the 2005 IEEE Robotics and Automation Society Early Academic Career Award, and the 2009 IEEE Technical Committee on Haptics Early Career Award. Her research interests include haptics, teleoperation, robot-assisted surgery, tissue modeling and simulation, rehabilitation robotics, and prosthetics. She is a fellow of the IEEE.
Cagatay Basdogan received the PhD degree in mechanical engineering from Southern Methodist University. He is a faculty member in the mechanical engineering and computational sciences and engineering programs in the College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul. Before joining Koc University, he worked at NASA-JPL/Caltech, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Northwestern University Research Park. His research interests include haptic interfaces, robotics, mechatronics, biomechanics, medical simulation, computer graphics, and multimodal virtual environments. He is currently an associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Haptics and Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds journals.
Sarah Baillie (MRCVS) is a senior lecturer at The Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom. She received her veterinary degree from the University of Bristol in 1986 and worked as a veterinarian in general practice for 20 years. She earned her master's and doctorate degrees in computing science in 2003 and 2006, respectively, from the University of Glasgow. She is the creator of several haptic simulators, including the Haptic Cow, now widely used in veterinary training. Her research interests include validation of haptic simulators, psychophysics, and contextualized simulation. She has received several awards for her work in education and with haptic simulators including the Times Higher Education Awards Most Innovative Teacher of the Year 2009 and was one of the UKRC's Women of Outstanding Achievement in Science, Engineering, and Technology in 2010.
William S. Harwin received the BA and PhD degrees in engineering from Cambridge University and a master's degree in bioengineering from Strathclyde University. He is currently the professor of interactive and human robotics at the University of Reading's School of Systems Engineering having previously worked at the Alfred I. DuPont Institute Delaware, the University of Delaware, and the University of Cambridge. His research interests are in robotics, haptics, and the human system. His research interests include medical and rehabilitation robots, and neuro-muscular modelling, robots for stroke rehabilitation, haptic interfaces with multitouch and with large range of movements at high speeds. He is a member of the IEEE.