The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - January-March (2011 vol.4)
pp: 39-50
Mohammadreza Arbabtafti , Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
Majid Moghaddam , Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
Ali Nahvi , K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran
Mohsen Mahvash , Boston University, Boston
Barry Richardson , Monash University, Victoria
Bijan Shirinzadeh , Monash University, Victoria
ABSTRACT
We present a physics-based training simulator for bone machining. Based on experimental studies, the energy required to remove a unit volume of bone is a constant for every particular bone material. We use this physical principle to obtain the forces required to remove bone material with a milling tool rotating at high speed. The rotating blades of the tool are modeled as a set of small cutting elements. The force of interaction between a cutting element and bone is calculated from the energy required to remove a bone chip with an estimated thickness and known material stiffness. The total force acting on the cutter at a particular instant is obtained by integrating the differential forces over all cutting elements engaged. A voxel representation is used to represent the virtual bone and removed chips for calculating forces of machining. We use voxels that carry bone material properties to represent the volumetric haptic body and to apply underlying physical changes during machining. Experimental results of machining samples of a real bone confirm the force model. A real-time haptic implementation of the method in a dental training simulator is described.
INDEX TERMS
Physics-based simulation, bone surgery simulation, haptic rendering, voxel-based simulation, volumetric model.
CITATION
Mohammadreza Arbabtafti, Majid Moghaddam, Ali Nahvi, Mohsen Mahvash, Barry Richardson, Bijan Shirinzadeh, "Physics-Based Haptic Simulation of Bone Machining", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.4, no. 1, pp. 39-50, January-March 2011, doi:10.1109/TOH.2010.5
REFERENCES
[1] T.R. Jasinevicius, M. Landers, S. Nelson, and A. Urbankova, "An Evaluation of Two Dental Simulation Systems: Virtual Reality versus Contemporary Non-Computer-Assisted," J. Dental Education, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 1151-1162, Nov. 2004.
[2] M. Mahvash and V. Hayward, "High Fidelity Haptic Synthesis of Contact with Deformable Bodies," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 48-55, Mar. 2004.
[3] V. Hayward, "Physically-Based Haptic Synthesis," Haptic Rendering: Foundations, Algorithms and Applications, M. Lin and M. Otaduy, eds., pp. 297-309, A K Peters, 2008.
[4] S. Cotin, H. Delingette, and N. Ayache, "Real-Time Elastic Deformations of Soft Tissues for Surgery Simulation," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 62-73, Jan. 1999.
[5] M. Mahvash and V. Hayward, "Haptic Rendering of Cutting: A Fracture Mechanics Approach," Haptics-e, Electronic J. Haptics Research, vol. 2, no. 3, 2001.
[6] V. Hayward and B. Armstrong, "A New Computational Model of Friction Applied to Haptic Rendering," Experimental Robotics VI, pp. 403-412, Springer, 2000.
[7] C.H. Jacobs, M.H. Pope, J.T. Berry, and F. Hoaglund, "A Study of the Bone Machining Process-Orthogonal Cutting," J. Biomechanics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 131-136, 1974.
[8] S.F. Gibson, "Volumetric Object Modeling for Surgical Simulation," Medical Image Analysis, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 121-132, 1998.
[9] M. Moghaddam, A. Nahvi, M. Arbabtafti, and M. Mahvash, "A Physically Realistic Voxel-Based Method for Haptic Simulation of Bone Machining," Proc. EuroHaptics Conf., pp. 651-660, 2008.
[10] G.J. Wiet, D. Stredney, D. Sessanna, J.A. Bryan, D.B. Welling, and P. Schmalbrock, "Virtual Temporal Bone Dissection: An Interactive Surgical Simulator," Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 79-83, July 2002.
[11] A. Petersik, B. Pflesser, U. Tiede, K.H. Hoehne, and R. Leuwer, "Haptic Volume Interaction with Anatomic Models at Sub-Voxel Resolution," Proc. 10th Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 66-72, 2002.
[12] D. Morris, C. Sewell, F. Barbagli, N. Blevins, S. Girod, and K. Salisbury, "Visuohaptic Simulation of Bone Surgery for Training and Evaluation," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 48-57, Nov./Dec. 2006.
[13] M. Agus, A. Giachetti, E. Gobbetti, G. Zanetti, and A. Zorcolo, "A Multiprocessor Decoupled System for the Simulation of Temporal Bone Surgery," Computing and Visualization in Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 35-43, 2002.
[14] M. Agus, G.J. Brelstaff, A. Giachetti, E. Gobbetti, G. Zanetti, and A. Zorcolo, "Physics-Based Burr Haptic Simulation: Tuning and Evaluation," Proc. 12th Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 128-135, 2004.
[15] D. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y.S. Lee, P. Lu, and Y. Wang, "Cutting on Triangle Mesh: Local Model-Based Haptic Display for Dental Preparation Surgery Simulation," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 671-683, Nov./Dec. 2005.
[16] L. Kim and S.H. Park, "Haptic Interaction and Volume Modeling Techniques for Realistic Dental Simulation," Visual Computing, vol. 22, pp. 90-98, 2006.
[17] H.T. Yau, L.S. Tsou, and M.J. Tsai, "Octree-Based Virtual Dental Training System with a Haptic Device," Computer-Aided Design and Applications, vol. 3, nos. 1-4, pp. 415-424, 2006.
[18] W. Zhu and Y.S. Lee, "Five-Axis Pencil-Cut Planning and Virtual Prototyping with 5-DOF Haptic Interface," Computer-Aided Design, vol. 36, no. 13, pp. 1295-1307, 2004.
[19] Y.H. Chen and Z.Y. Yang, "Haptic Rendering Based on Spatial Run-Length Encoding," Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 20, pp. 237-246, 2004.
[20] C.H. Jacobs, M.H. Pope, J.T. Berry, and F. Hoaglund, "A Study of the Bone Machining Process-Drilling," J. Biomechanics, vol. 9, pp. 343-349, 1976.
[21] W.R. Krause, "Orthogonal Bone Cutting: Saw Design and Operating Characteristics," J. Biomechanical Eng., vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 263-271, 1987.
[22] M.J. Jackson, G.M. Robinson, H. Sein, W. Ahmed, and R. Woodwards, "Machining Cancellous Bone Prior to Prosthetic Implantation," J. Materials Eng. and Performance, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 293-300, 2005.
[23] C. Plaskos, A.J. Hodgson, and P. Cinquin, "Modeling and Optimization of Bone-Cutting Forces in Orthopaedic Surgery," Proc. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, pp. 254-261, 2003.
[24] G. Boothroyd and W.A. Knight, Fundamentals of Machining and Machine Tools. Marcel Dekker, 1989.
[25] ConMed Linvatec Corporation, http:/www.conmed.com, 2010.
[26] M.R. Bruce, D.B. Burr, and N.A. Sharkey, Skeletal Tissue Mechanics. Springer, 1998.
[27] B. Cabral, N. Cam, and J. Foran, "Accelerated Volume Rendering and Tomographic Reconstruction Using Texture Mapping Hardware," Proc. Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 91-98, 1994.
[28] J.E. Colgate, P.E. Grafing, M.C. Stanley, and G. Schenkel, "Implementation of Stiff Virtual Walls in Force-Reflecting Interfaces," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp., pp. 202-208, 1993.
[29] R.E. Ellis, N. Sarkar, and M.A. Jenkins, "Numerical Methods for the Force Reflection of Contact," ASME Trans. Dynamic Systems, Modeling, and Control, vol. 119, pp. 768-774, 1997.
[30] M. Agus, A. Giachetti, E. Gobbetti, G. Zanetti, and A. Zorcolo, "Adaptive Techniques for Real-Time Haptic and Visual Simulation of Bone Dissection," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, pp. 102-109, 2003.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool