The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.02 - April-June (2010 vol.3)
pp: 98-108
Charlotte M. Reed , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
Hong Z. Tan , Purdue University, West Lafayette
This paper is concerned with investigating the factors that contribute to optimizing information transfer (IT) rate in humans. With an increasing interest in designing complex haptic signals for a wide variety of applications, there is a need for a better understanding of how information can be displayed in an optimal way. Based on the results of several early studies from the 1950s, a general “rule of thumb” has arisen in the literature which suggests that IT rate is dependent primarily on the stimulus delivery rate and is optimized for presentation rates of 2-3 items/s. Thus, the key to maximizing IT rate is to maximize the information in the stimulus set. Recent data obtained with multidimensional tactual signals, however, appear to contradict these conclusions. In particular, these current results suggest that optimal delivery rate varies with stimulus information to yield a constant peak IT rate that depends on the degree of familiarity and training with a particular stimulus set. We discuss factors that may be responsible for the discrepancies in results across studies including procedural differences, training issues, and stimulus-response compatibility. These factors should be taken into account when designing haptic signals to yield optimal IT rates for communication devices.
Communication, human performance, information transfer rate, mobile device.
Charlotte M. Reed, Hong Z. Tan, "Optimum Information Transfer Rates for Communication through Haptic and Other Sensory Modalities", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.3, no. 2, pp. 98-108, April-June 2010, doi:10.1109/TOH.2009.46
[1] F.A. Geldard, "Adventures in Tactile Literacy," The Am. Psychologist, vol. 12, pp. 115-124, 1957.
[2] K.E. MacLean and M. Enriquez, "Perceptual Design of Haptic Icons," Proc. EuroHaptics 2003, pp. 351-362, 2003.
[3] J.B.F. van Erp and M.M.A. Spape, "Distilling the Underlying Dimensions of Tactile Melodies," Proc. EuroHaptics 2003, pp. 111-120, 2003.
[4] L.M. Brown, S.A. Brewster, and H.C. Purchase, "Multidimensional Tactons for Non-Visual Information Presentation in Mobile Devices," Proc. Eighth Conf. Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, pp. 231-238, 2006.
[5] A.H. Rupert, "An Instrument Solution for Reducing Spatial Disorientation Mishaps—a More "Natural" Approach to Maintaining Spatial Orientation," IEEE Eng. Medicine and Biology Magazine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 71-80, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[6] R.W. Cholewiak and A.A. Collins, "Vibrotactile Localization on the Arm: Effects of Place, Space, and Age," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 65, pp. 1058-1077, 2003.
[7] H.Z. Tan, R. Gray, J.J. Young, and R. Traylor, "A Haptic Back Display for Attentional and Directional Cueing," Haptics-e: The Electronic J. Haptics Research, vol. 3, article no. 1, 2003.
[8] H.A.H.C. van Veen and J.B.F. van Erp, "Providing Directional Information with Tactile Torso Displays," Proc. EuroHaptics 2003, pp. 471-474, 2003.
[9] H. van Veen, M. Spape, and J.v. Erp, "Waypoint Navigation on Land: Different Ways of Coding Distance to the Next Waypoint," Proc. EuroHaptics 2004, pp. 160-165, 2004.
[10] L.A. Jones, M. Nakamura, and B. Lockyer, "Development of a Tactile Vest," Proc. 12th Int'l. Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS '04), pp. 82-89, 2004.
[11] L.A. Jones, B. Lockyer, and E. Piateski, "Tactile Display and Vibrotactile Recognition on the Torso," Advanced Robotics, vol. 20, pp. 1359-1374, 2006.
[12] I. Oakley, Y. Kim, J. Lee, and J. Ryu, "Determining the Feasibility of Forearm Mounted Vibrotactile Displays," Proc. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS '06), pp. 27-34, 2006.
[13] E. Hoggan, S. Anwar, and S.A. Brewster, "Mobile Multi-Actuator Tactile Displays," Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, vol. 4813, pp. 22-33, 2007.
[14] H.-Y. Chen, J. Santos, M. Graves, K. Kim, and H.Z. Tan, "Tactor Localization at the Wrist," Proc. EuroHaptics 2008, M. Ferre, ed., pp. 209-218, 2008.
[15] A. Murray, R.L. Klatzky, and P. Khosla, "Psychophysical Characterization and Testbed Validation of a Wearable Vibrotactile Glove for Telemanipulation," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 12, pp. 156-182, 2003.
[16] L.A. Jones and H.-N. Ho, "Warm or Cool, Large or Small? The Challenge of Thermal Displays," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 53-70, Jan.-June 2008.
[17] M. Slater, "How Colorful Was Your Day? Why Questionnaires Cannot Assess Presence in Virtual Environments," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 13, pp. 484-493, 2004.
[18] W.R. Garner, Uncertainty and Structure as Psychological Concepts, Wiley, 1962.
[19] N.I. Durlach, H.Z. Tan, N.A. Macmillan, W.M. Rabinowitz, and L.D. Braida, "Resolution in One Dimension with Random Variations in Background Dimensions," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 46, pp. 293-296, 1989.
[20] P.M. Fitts, "The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling the Amplitude of Movement," J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 47, pp. 381-391, 1954.
[21] G.A. Miller, "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information," The Psychological Rev., vol. 63, pp. 81-97, 1956.
[22] H.Z. Tan, "Identification of Sphere Size Using the PHANToM: Towards a Set of Building Blocks for Rendering Haptic Environment," Proc. Sixth Int'l. Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, vol. 61, pp. 197-203, 1997.
[23] H.Z. Tan, N.I. Durlach, C.M. Reed, and W.M. Rabinowitz, "Information Transmission with a Multifinger Tactual Display," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 61, pp. 993-1008, 1999.
[24] M.K. O'Malley and M. Goldfarb, "On the Ability of Humans to Haptically Identify and Discriminate Real and Simulated Objects," PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 14, pp. 366-376, 2005.
[25] S.J. Lederman, R.L. Klatzky, A. Abramowicz, K. Salsman, R. Kitada, and C. Hamilton, "Haptic Recognition of Static and Dynamic Expressions of Emotion in the Live Face," Psychological Science, vol. 18, pp. 158-164, 2007.
[26] W.M. Rabinowitz, A.J.M. Houtsma, N.I. Durlach, and L.A. Delhorne, "Multidimensional Tactile Displays: Identification of Vibratory Intensity, Frequency, and Contactor Area," J. Acoustical Soc. of America, vol. 82, pp. 1243-1252, 1987.
[27] E.T. Klemmer and P.F. Muller, "The Rate of Handling Information: Key-Pressing Responses to Light Patterns," Human Factors Operations Research Laboratories (HFORL) Memo Report, Air Research and Development Command, Bolling Air Force Base, Mar. 1953.
[28] E.A. Alluisi, P.F. Muller, and P.M. Fitts, "An Information Analysis of Verbal and Motor Responses in a Forced-Paced Serial Task," J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 53, pp. 153-158, 1957.
[29] H.Z. Tan, "Information Transmission with a Multi-Finger Tactual Display," Doctoral dissertation, Dept. of Electrical Eng. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech nology, 1996.
[30] H.Z. Tan, N.I. Durlach, W.M. Rabinowitz, and C.M. Reed, "Information Transmission with a Multi-Finger Tactual Display," Scandinavian Audiology, vol. 26, pp. 24-28, 1997.
[31] C.M. Reed, L.A. Delhorne, A. Brughera, N. Durlach, H.Z. Tan, and A. Wong, "Information-Transfer Rates for Sequences of Multidimensional Tactual Signals," Proc. Seventh Int'l Sensory Aids Conf., 2003.
[32] H.Z. Tan, C.M. Reed, L.A. Delhorne, N.I. Durlach, and N. Wan, "Temporal Masking of Multidimensional Tactual Stimuli," J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 114, pp. 3295-3308, 2003.
[33] I.R. Summers, P.R. Dixon, P.G. Cooper, D.A. Gratton, B.H. Brown, and J.C. Stevens, "Vibrotactile and Electrotactile Perception of Time-Varying Pulse Trains," J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 95, pp. 1548-1558, 1994.
[34] I.R. Summers, P.G. Cooper, P. Wright, D.A. Gratton, P. Milnes, and B.H. Brown, "Information from Time-Varying Vibrotactile Stimuli," J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 102, pp. 3686-3696, 1997.
[35] I.R. Summers, J.J. Whybrow, D.A. Gratton, P. Milnes, B.H. Brown, and J.C. Stevens, "Tactile Information Transfer: A Comparison of Two Stimulation Sites," J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 118, pp. 2527-2534, 2005.
[36] C.M. Reed and N.I. Durlach, "Note on Information Transfer Rates in Human Communication," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 7, pp. 509-518, 1998.
[37] C.E. Shannon, "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English," Bell System Technical J., vol. 30, pp. 50-64, 1951.
[38] H.Z. Tan, N.I. Durlach, W.M. Rabinowitz, C.M. Reed, and J.R. Santos, "Reception of Morse Code through Motional, Vibrotactile, and Auditory Stimulation," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 59, pp. 1004-1017, 1997.
[39] J. Jonides, E.H. Schumacher, E.E. Smith, E.J. Lauber, E. Awh, S. Minoshima, and R.A. Koeppe, "Verbal Working Memory Load Affects Regional Brain Activation as Measured by PET," J. Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 9, pp. 462-475, 1997.
[40] P.M. Fitts and C.M. Seeger, "S-R Compatibility: Spatial Characteristics of Stimulus and Response Codes," J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 46, pp. 199-210, 1953.
[41] P.M. Fitts and R.L. Deininger, "S-R Compatibility: Correspondence among Paired Elements within Stimulus and Response Codes," J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 48, pp. 483-492, 1954.
[42] E.A. Alluisi and J.S. Warm, "Things that Go To-Gether: A Review of Stimulus-Response Compatibility and Related Effects," Stimulus-Response Compatibility: An Integrated Perspective, R.W. Proctor and T.G. Reeve, eds., pp. 3-30, North-Holland, 1990.
[43] J.R. Simon, "The Effects of an Irrelevant Directional Cue on Human Information Processing," Stimulus-Response Compatibility: An Integrated Perspective, R.W. Proctor and T.G. Reeve, eds., pp. 31-86, North-Holland, 1990.
[44] R.W. Proctor and K.-P. L. Vu, "Roles of Task-Defined Associations and Reference Frames in Spatial Sti-Mulus-Response Compatibility," Experimental Cognitive Psychology and Its Applications, A.F. Healy, ed., APA Books, 2004.
[45] R.W. Proctor, H. Wang, and K.-P.L. Vu, "Influences of Conceptual, Physical, and Structural Similarity on Stimulus-Response Compatibility," Quarterly J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 55A, pp. 59-74, 2002.
[46] R.W. Proctor, H.Z. Tan, K.-P.L. Vu, R. Gray, and C. Spence, "Implications of Compatibility and Cuing Effects for Multimodal Interfaces," Proc. 11th Int'l. Conf. Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 22-27, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., July 2005.
[47] S. Kornblum, T. Hasbroucq, and A. Osman, "Dimensional Overlap: Cognitive Basis for Stimulus-Response Compatibility—A Model and Taxonomy," Psychological Rev., vol. 97, pp. 253-270, 1990.
[48] T.G. Reeve and R.W. Proctor, "The Salient-Features Coding Principle for Spatial- and Symbolic-Compatibility Effects," Stimulus-Response Compatibility: An Integrated Perspective, R.W. Proctor and T.G. Reeve, eds., pp. 163-180, North-Holland, 1990.
16 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool