This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Cues for Haptic Perception of Compliance
October-December 2009 (vol. 2 no. 4)
pp. 189-199
Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest, Utrecht University, Utrecht
Astrid M.L. Kappers, Utrecht University, Utrecht
For the perception of the hardness of compliant materials, several cues are available. In this paper, the relative roles of force/displacement and surface deformation cues are investigated. We have measured discrimination thresholds with silicone rubber stimuli of differing thickness and compliance. Also, the influence of the finger span is assessed. When compliance is expressed as the Young's modulus, the thresholds in the different conditions follow Weber's law with a Weber fraction of 15 percent. When the surface deformation cue was removed, thresholds more than trebled. Under the assumption of optimal cue combination, this suggests that a large fraction of the information comes from the surface deformation cue. Using a matching experiment, we found that differences in object thickness are correctly taken into account. When cues appear to contradict each other, the conflict is resolved by means of a compromise.

[1] R. Harper and S.S. Stevens, “Subjective Hardness of Compliant Materials,” Quarterly J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 16, pp. 204-215, 1964.
[2] G.W. Scott Blair and F.M.V. Coppen, “The Subjective Judgements of the Elastic and Plastic Properties of Soft Bodies; the ‘Differential Thresholds’ for Viscosities and Compression Moduli,” Proc. Royal Soc. B, vol. 128, pp. 109-125, 1939.
[3] F.M.V. Coppen, “The Differential Threshold for the Subjective Judgement of the Elastic and Plastic Properties of Soft Bodies,” British J. Psychology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 231-247, 1942.
[4] F.K.B. Freyberger and B. Färber, “Compliance Discrimination of Deformable Objects by Squeezing with One and Two Fingers,” Proc. EuroHaptics '06, pp. 271-276, 2006.
[5] H.Z. Tan, N.I. Durlach, G.L. Beauregard, and M.A. Srinivasan, “Manual Discrimination of Compliance Using Active Pinch Grasp: The Roles of Force and Work Cues,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 495-510, 1995.
[6] M.A. Srinivasan and R.H. LaMotte, “Tactual Discrimination of Softness,” J. Neurophysiology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 88-101, 1995.
[7] R.H. LaMotte, “Softness Discrimination with a Tool,” J. Neurophysiology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 1777-1786, 2000.
[8] R.M. Friedman, K.D. Hester, B.G. Green, and R.H. LaMotte, “Magnitude Estimation of Softness,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 133-142, 2008.
[9] D.A. Lawrence, L.Y. Pao, A.M. Dougherty, M.A. Salada, and Y. Pavlou, “Rate-Hardness: A New Performance Metric for Haptic Interfaces,” IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp.357-371, Aug. 2000.
[10] A. Bicchi, E.P. Scilingo, and D. De Rossi, “Haptic Discrimination of Softness in Teleoperation: The Role of the Contact Area Spread Rate,” IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 496-504, Oct. 2000.
[11] M.A. Srinivasan, G.L. Beauregard, and D.L. Brock, “The Impact of Visual Information on the Haptic Perception of Stiffness in Virtual Environments,” Proc. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division, vol. 58, pp. 555-559, 1996.
[12] A. Lécuyer, S. Coquillart, A. Kheddar, P. Richard, and P. Coiffet, “Pseudo Haptic Feedback: Can Isometric Input Devices Simulate Force Feedback?” Proc. Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp., pp. 83-90, 2000.
[13] X.D. Pang, H.Z. Tan, and N.I. Durlach, “Manual Discrimination of Force Using Active Finger Motion,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 531-540, 1991.
[14] N.I. Durlach, L.A. Delhorne, A. Wong, W.Y. Ko, W.M. Rabinowitz, and J. Hollerbach, “Manual Discrimination and Identification of Length by the Finger-Span Method,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 29-38, 1989.
[15] W.M. Bergmann Tiest and A.M.L. Kappers, “Kinaesthetic and Cutaneous Contributions to the Perception of Compressibility,” Haptics: Perception, Devices, and Scenarios, M. Ferre, ed., pp. 255-264, Springer, 2008.
[16] S. Coren, The Left-Hander Syndrome: The Causes and Consequences of Left-Handedness. Vintage Books, 1993.
[17] L.A. Jones and I.W. Hunter, “A Perceptual Analysis of Stiffness,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 150-156, 1990.
[18] M.O. Ernst and M.S. Banks, “Humans Integrate Visual and Haptic Information in a Statistically Optimal Fashion,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6870, pp. 429-433, 2002.
[19] F.A. Wichmann and N.J. Hill, “The Psychometric Function: I.Fitting, Sampling, and Goodness of Fit,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1293-1313, 2001.

Index Terms:
Compliance, hardness, softness, psychophysics, haptic perception, touch.
Citation:
Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest, Astrid M.L. Kappers, "Cues for Haptic Perception of Compliance," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 189-199, Oct.-Dec. 2009, doi:10.1109/TOH.2009.16
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.