The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - January-June (2008 vol.1)
pp: 53-70
Lynette A. Jones , MIT, Cambridge
Hsin-Ni Ho , NTT Communciation Science Laboratory, Kanagawa
ABSTRACT
Thermal displays have been developed to present thermal cues to the hand to facilitate object recognition in virtual environments or in teleoperated robotic systems. This review focuses on this application domain of thermal displays and considers the models developed to simulate the thermal interaction between an object and the hand as they make contact. An overview of thermal perception and the mechanisms underlying the processing of thermal information is provided to give a framework for analyzing the design of thermal displays. The models developed to simulate thermal feedback are examined together with a description of the implementation of these models in thermal displays. The domains in which thermal displays have been used are described; this includes the simulation of material properties, the recreation of large-scale thermal effects in virtual environments, the encoding of abstract concepts and the use of thermal feedback in interactive art. The review concludes by considering the advantages and challenges associated with using thermal displays in these diverse areas.
INDEX TERMS
Haptic I/O, Human Haptics, Perception and psychophysics
CITATION
Lynette A. Jones, Hsin-Ni Ho, "Warm or Cool, Large or Small? The Challenge of Thermal Displays", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.1, no. 1, pp. 53-70, January-June 2008, doi:10.1109/TOH.2008.2
REFERENCES
[1] J. Dionisio, V. Henrich, U. Jakob, A. Rettig, and R. Ziegler, “The Virtual Touch: Haptic Interfaces in Virtual Environments,” Computer and Graphics, vol. 21, pp. 459-468, 1997.
[2] H.-N. Ho and L.A. Jones, “Development and Evaluation of a Thermal Display for Material Identification and Discrimination,” ACM Trans. Applied Perception, vol. 4, pp. 1-24, 2007.
[3] A. Kron and G. Schmidt, “Multi-Fingered Tactile Feedback from Virtual and Remote Environments,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS '03), pp. 16-23, 2003.
[4] D.G. Caldwell, N. Tsagarakis, and A. Wardle, “Mechano Thermo and Proprioceptor Feedback for Integrated Haptic Feedback,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '97), vol. 3, pp.2491-2496, 1997.
[5] H.-N. Ho and L.A. Jones, “Material Identification Using Real and Simulated Thermal Cues,” Proc. 26th Ann. Int'l Conf. IEEE Eng. in Medicine and Biology Soc. (EMBS '04), pp. 2462-2465, 2004.
[6] S. Ino, S. Shimizu, T. Odagawa, M. Sato, M. Takahashi, T. Izumi, and T. Ifukube, “A Tactile Display for Presenting Quality of Materials by Changing the Temperature of Skin Surface,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Robot and Human Comm. (ROMAN '93), pp.220-224, 1993.
[7] A. Yamamoto, B. Cros, H. Hasgimoto, and T. Higuchi, “Control of Thermal Tactile Display Based on Prediction of Contact Temperature,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '04), pp. 1536-1541, 2004.
[8] S.J. Bolanowski, G.A. Gescheider, R.T. Verrillo, and C.M. Checkosky, “Four Channels Mediate the Mechanical Aspects of Touch,” J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 84, pp. 1680-1694, 1988.
[9] S.J. Bolanowski Jr. and R.T. Verrillo, “Temperature and Criterion Effects in a Somatosensory Subsystem: A Neurophysiological and Psychophysical Study,” J. Neurophysiology, vol. 48, pp. 836-855, 1982.
[10] K.O. Johnson, I. Darian-Smith, and C. LaMotte, “Peripheral Neural Determinants of Temperature Discrimination in Man: A Correlative Study of Responses to Cooling Skin,” J. Neurophysiology, vol. 36, pp. 347-370, 1973.
[11] R. Duclaux and D.R. Kenshalo, “The Temperature Sensitivity of the Type I Slowly Adapting Mechanoreceptors in Cats and Monkeys,” J. Physiology, vol. 224, pp. 647-664, 1972.
[12] I. Darian-Smith and K.O. Johnson, “Thermal Sensibility and Thermal Receptors,” J. Investigative Dermatology, vol. 69, pp.146-153, 1977.
[13] D.C. Spray, “Cutaneous Temperature Receptors,” Ann. Rev. of Physiology, vol. 48, pp. 625-638, 1986.
[14] J.D. Hardy, H.G. Wolff, and H. Goodell, “Pricking Pain Threshold in Different Body Areas,” Proc. Soc. for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 80, pp. 425-427, 1952.
[15] J.L.K. Harrison and K.D. Davis, “Cold-Evoked Pain Varies with Skin Type and Cooling Rate: A Psychophysical Study in Humans,” Pain, vol. 83, pp. 123-135, 1999.
[16] B.G. Green, “Synthetic Heat at Mild Temperatures,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 19, pp. 130-138, 2002.
[17] B.G. Green and K.L. Schoen, “Thermal and Nociceptive Sensations from Menthol and Their Suppression by Dynamic Contact,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 176, pp. 284-291, 2007.
[18] D.R. Kenshalo, “Correlations of Temperature Sensitivity in Man and Monkey, A First Approximation,” Sensory Functions of the Skin with Special Reference to Man, Y. Zotterman, ed., pp. 305-330, Pergamon Press, 1976.
[19] K. Parsons, Human Thermal Environments, second ed. Taylor & Francis, 2003.
[20] L.A. Jones and M. Berris, “Material Discrimination and Thermal Perception,” Proc. 11th Int'l Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS '03), pp. 171-178, 2003.
[21] R.T. Verrillo, S.J. Bolanowski, C.M. Checkosky, and F.P. McGlone, “Effects of Hydration on Tactile Sensation,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 15, pp. 93-108, 1998.
[22] H.-N. Ho and L.A. Jones, “Contribution of Thermal Cues to Material Discrimination and Localization,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 68, pp. 118-128, 2006.
[23] J.C. Stevens and K.C. Choo, “Temperature Sensitivity of the Body Surface over the Life Span,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 15, pp. 13-28, 1998.
[24] I. Darian-Smith, K.O. Johnson, and R. Dykes, “Cold Fiber Population Innervating Palmar and Digital Skin of the Monkey: Responses to Cooling Pulses,” J. Neurophysiology, vol. 36, pp. 325-346, 1973.
[25] B.G. Green and A. Cruz, “Warmth-Insensitive Fields: Evidence of Sparse and Irregular Innervation of Human Skin by the Warmth Sense,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 15, pp. 269-275, 1998.
[26] H. Strughold and R. Porz, “Die Dichte der Kaltpunkte auf der Haut des Menschlichen Körpers,” Zeitschrift für Biologie, vol. 91, pp. 563-571, 1931.
[27] A. Dhaka, V. Viswanath, and A. Patapoutian, “TRP Ion Channels and Temperature Sensation,” Ann. Revs. of Neuroscience, vol. 29, pp. 135-161, 2006.
[28] D.D. McKemy, W.M. Neuhausser, and D. Julius, “Identification of a Cold Receptor Reveals a General Role for TRP Channels in Thermosensation,” Nature, vol. 416, pp. 52-58, 2002.
[29] M. Bandell, L.J. Macpherson, and A. Patapoutian, “From Chills to Chilis: Mechanisms for Thermosensation and Chemesthesis via ThermoTRPs,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 17, pp.490-497, 2007.
[30] A. Patapoutian, A.M. Peier, G.M. Story, and V. Viswanath, “ThermoTRPs and Beyond: Mechanisms of Temperature Sensation,” Nature Revs. Neuroscience, vol. 4, pp. 529-539, 2003.
[31] I. Darian-Smith, “Thermal Sensibility,” Handbook of Physiology: The Nervous System, I. Darian-Smith, ed., pp.879-913, Am. Physiological Soc., 1984.
[32] D. Yarnitsky and J.L. Ochoa, “Warm and Cold Specific Somatosensory Systems,” Brain, vol. 114, pp. 1819-1826, 1991.
[33] K.O. Johnson, I. Darian-Smith, C. LaMotte, B. Johnson, and S. Oldfield, “Coding of Incremental Changes in Skin Temperature by a Population of Warm Fibers in the Monkey: Correlation with Intensity Discrimination in Man,” J. Neurophysiology, vol. 42, pp.1332-1353, 1979.
[34] J.C. Stevens, “Thermal Sensibility,” The Psychology of Touch, M.A. Heller and W. Schiff, eds., pp. 61-90, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991.
[35] D.R. Kenshalo and H.A. Scott, “Temporal Course of Thermal Adaptation,” Science, vol. 151, pp. 1095-1096, 1966.
[36] H.H. Molinari, J.D. Greenspan, and D.R. Kenshalo, “The Effects of Rate of Temperature Change and Adapting Temperature on Thermal Sensitivity,” Sensory Processes, vol. 1, pp. 354-362, 1977.
[37] L.E. Marks and J.C. Stevens, “Perceived Warmth and Skin Temperature as Functions of the Duration and Level of Thermal Irradiation,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 4, pp. 220-228, 1968.
[38] L.E. Marks and J.C. Stevens, “Perceived Cold and Skin Temperature as Functions of Stimulation Level and Duration,” Am. J.Psychology, vol. 85, pp. 407-419, 1972.
[39] D.R. Kenshalo, C.E. Homes, and P.B. Wood, “Warm and Cool Thresholds as a Function of Rate of Stimulus Temperature Change,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 3, pp. 81-84, 1968.
[40] K.L. Schoen, L.E. Marks, and B.G. Green, “Temperature Perception Throughout the Hand,” Soc. for Neuroscience Abstracts, Program 59.14, 2004.
[41] L.M. Harding and A.R. Loescher, “Adaptation to Warming but Not Cooling at Slow Rates of Stimulus Change in Thermal Threshold Measurements,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 22, pp. 45-48, 2005.
[42] D. Meh and M. Denislic, “Quantitative Assessment of Thermal and Pain Sensitivity,” J. Neurological Sciences, vol. 127, pp. 164-169, 1994.
[43] J.D. Greenspan, E.A. Roy, P.A. Caldwell, and N.S. Farooq, “Thermosensory Intensity and Affect Throughout the Perceptible Range,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 20, pp. 19-26, 2003.
[44] G. Yang, D. Kwon, and L.A. Jones, “Spatial Acuity and Summation on the Hand: The Role of Thermal Cues in Material Discrimination,” submitted for publication.
[45] J.C. Stevens and L.E. Marks, “Spatial Summation and the Dynamics of Warmth Sensation,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 9, pp. 391-398, 1971.
[46] J.C. Stevens and L.E. Marks, “Spatial Summation of Cold,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 22, pp. 541-547, 1979.
[47] J.D. Greenspan and D.R. Kenshalo, “The Primate as a Model for the Human Temperature-Sensing System: 2. Area of Skin Receiving Thermal Stimulation,” Somatosensory Research, vol. 2, pp. 315-324, 1985.
[48] D.R. Kenshalo, T. Decker, and A. Hamilton, “Comparisons of Spatial Summation on the Forehead, Forearm, and Back Produced by Radiant and Conducted Heat,” J. Comparative and Physiological Psychology, vol. 63, pp. 510-515, 1967.
[49] S.L. Berg, “Magnitude Estimates of Spatial Summation for Conducted Cool Stimuli along with Thermal Fractionation and a Case of Secondary Hyperalgesia,” PhD dissertation, Florida State Univ., 1978.
[50] L.E. Marks, J.C. Stevens, and S.J. Tepper, “Interaction of Spatial and Temporal Summation in the Warmth Sense,” Sensory Processes, vol. 1, pp. 87-98, 1976.
[51] A.J. Rozsa and D.R. Kenshalo, “Bilateral Spatial Summation of Cooling of Symmetrical Sites,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 21, pp. 455-462, 1977.
[52] J.D. Hardy and T.W. Oppel, “Studies in Temperature Sensation III. The Sensitivity of the Body to Heat and the Spatial Summation ofthe End Organ Responses,” J. Clinical Investigation, vol. 16, pp.533-540, 1937.
[53] M.K. Tritsch, “The Veridical Perception of Object Temperature with Varying Skin Temperature,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 43, pp. 531-540, 1988.
[54] B.G. Green and R. Zaharchuk, “Spatial Variation in Sensitivity as a Factor in Measurements of Spatial Summation of Warmth and Cold,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, vol. 18, pp. 181-190, 2001.
[55] L.A. Jones and S.J. Lederman, Human Hand Function. Oxford Univ. Press, 2006.
[56] F. Vega-Bermudez and K.O. Johnson, “Differences in Spatial Acuity between Digits,” Neurology, vol. 56, pp. 1389-1391, 2001.
[57] R.H. Taus, J.C. Stevens, and L.E. Marks, “Spatial Localization of Warmth,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 17, pp. 194-196, 1975.
[58] W.S. Cain, “Spatial Discrimination of Cutaneous Warmth,” Am. J.Psychology, vol. 86, pp. 169-181, 1973.
[59] A.J.H. Vendrik and E.G. Eijkman, “Psychophysical Properties Determined with Internal Noise,” The Skin Senses, D.R. Kenshalo,ed., pp. 178-193, Charles Thomas, 1968.
[60] P.W. Nathan and R.C. Rice, “The Localization of Warm Stimuli,” Neurology, vol. 16, pp. 533-540, 1966.
[61] M.L. Simmel and A. Shapiro, “The Localization of Non-Tactile Thermal Sensations,” Psychophysiology, vol. 5, pp. 415-425, 1969.
[62] B.G. Green, “Localization of Thermal Sensation: An Illusion and Synthetic Heat,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 22, pp. 331-337, 1977.
[63] W.P. Banks, “Areal and Temporal Summation in the Thermal Reaction Time,” Sensory Processes, vol. 1, pp. 2-13, 1976.
[64] J.C. Stevens, W.C. Okulicz, and L.E. Marks, “Temporal Summation at the Warmth Threshold,” Perception & Psychophysics, vol. 14, pp. 307-312, 1973.
[65] E. Abbott, “The Effect of Adaptation on the Temperature Difference Limen,” Psychological Monographs, vol. 16, pp. 1-36, 1914.
[66] P.J. Dyck, D.J. Curtis, W. Bushek, and K. Offord, “Description of ‘Minnesota Thermal Disks’ and Normal Values of Cutaneous Thermal Discrimination in Man,” Neurology, vol. 24, pp. 325-330, 1974.
[67] W.M. Bergmann Tiest and A.M.L. Kappers, “Thermosensory Reversal Effect Quantified,” Acta Psychologica, vol. 127, pp. 46-50, 2008.
[68] S.J. Lederman and R.L. Klatzky, “Relative Availability of Surface and Object Properties during Early Haptic Processing,” J. Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 23, pp. 1680-1707, 1997.
[69] D.G. Caldwell and C. Gosney, “Enhanced Tactile Feedback (Tele-Taction)Using a Multi-Functional Sensory System,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '93), pp. 3923-3928, 1993.
[70] M. Benali-Khoudja, M. Hafez, J.M. Alexandre, J. Benachour, and A. Kheddar, “Thermal Feedback Model for Virtual Reality,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Micromechatronics and Human Science (MHS '03), pp.153-158, 2003.
[71] W.M. Bergmann Tiest, “An Experimentally Verified Model of the Perceived “Coldness” of Objects,” Proc. Second Joint EuroHaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (World Haptics '07), pp. 61-65, 2007.
[72] A. Drif, J. Citerin, and A. Kheddar, “Thermal Bilateral Coupling in Teleoperators,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS '05), pp. 2818-2823, 2005.
[73] J. Citerin, A. Pocheville, and A. Kheddar, “A Touch Rendering Device in a Virtual Environment with Kinesthetic and Thermal Feedback,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA'06), pp. 3923-3928, 2006.
[74] B. Deml, A. Mihalyi, and G. Hanning, “Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Thermal Display,” Proc. EuroHaptics Conf., pp. 257-262, 2006.
[75] H.H. Pennes, “Analysis of Tissue and Arterial Blood Temperatures in the Resting Forearm,” J. Applied Physiology, vol. 1, pp. 93-122, 1948.
[76] C.K. Charny, “Mathematical Models of Bioheat Transfer,” Advances in Heat Transfer, Y.I. Cho, ed., pp. 19-155, Academic Press, 1992.
[77] A. Sarda, R. Deterre, and C. Vergneault, “Heat Perception Measurements of the Different Parts Found in a Car Passenger Compartment,” Measurement, vol. 35, pp. 65-75, 2004.
[78] J.A. Businger and K.J.K. Buettner, “Thermal Contact Coefficient (A Term Proposed for Use in Heat Transfer),” J. Meteorology, vol. 18, p. 422, 1961.
[79] F.P. Incropera and D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Wiley, 1996.
[80] H.-N. Ho and L.A. Jones, “Modeling the Thermal Responses of the Skin Surface during Hand-Object Interactions,” J. Biomechanical Eng., vol. 130, p. 21005-1-8, 2008.
[81] Q. Geng and I. Holmér, “Change in Contact Temperature of Finger Touching on Cold Surfaces,” Int'l J. Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 27, pp. 387-391, 2001.
[82] H.-N. Ho and L.A. Jones, “Thermal Model for Hand-Object Interactions,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS '03), pp. 461-467, 2006.
[83] M.M. Yovanovich, “Thermal Contact Correlations,” Spacecraft Radiative Transfer and Temperature Control, T.E. Horton, ed., pp.83-95, Am. Inst. Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1982.
[84] M. Bergamasco, A.A. Alessi, and M. Calcara, “Thermal Feedback in Virtual Environments,” Presence, vol. 6, pp. 617-629, 1997.
[85] G. Yang, L.A. Jones, and D. Kwon, “Use of Simulated Thermal Cues for Material Discrimination and Identification with a Multi-Fingered Display,” Presence, vol. 17, pp. 29-42, 2008.
[86] K.E. MacLean and J.B. Roderick, “Smart Tangible Displays in the Everyday World: A Haptic Doorknob,” Proc. IEEE/ASME Int'l Conf. Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM '99), pp. 203-208, 1999.
[87] H.-N. Ho and L.A. Jones, “Infrared Thermal Measurement System for Evaluating Model-Based Thermal Displays,” Proc. Second Joint Eurohaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (World Haptics '07), pp. 157-162, 2007.
[88] A. Lecuyer, P. Mobuchon, C. Megard, J. Perret, C. Andriot, and J. Colinot, “Homere: A Multimodel System for Visually Impaired People to Explore Virtual Environments,” Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality (VR '03), pp. 251-258, 2003.
[89] G. Yang, K. Kyung, M.A. Srinivasan, and D. Kwon, “Quantitative Tactile Display Device with Pin-Array Type Tactile Feedback and Thermal Feedback,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '06), pp. 3917-3922, 2006.
[90] P. Kammermeier, A. Kron, J. Hoogen, and G. Schmidt, “Display of Holistic Haptic Sensations by Combined Tactile and Kinesthetic Feedback,” Presence, vol. 13, pp. 1-15, 2004.
[91] M. Zerkus, B. Becker, J. Ward, and L. Halvorsen, “Thermal Feedback in Virtual Reality and Telerobotic Systems,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Measurement and Control in Robotics (ISMCR '94), pp.107-113, 1994.
[92] M. Ottensmeyer and J.K. Salisbury, “Hot and Cold Running VR: Adding Thermal Stimuli to the Haptic Experience,” Proc. Second PHANToM Users Group Meeting, Artificial Intelligence, Technical Report 1617, 1997.
[93] R. Driscoll, http:/www.rosalyndriscoll.com, Mar. 2008.
[94] M. Orth, http:/www.maggieorth.com, Mar. 2008.
[95] K. Kushiyama, M. Inose, R. Yokomatsu, K. Fujita, T. Kitazawa, M. Tamura, and S. Sasada, “Thermoesthesia: About Collaboration of an Artist and a Scientist,” ACM SIGGRAPH Sketches, 2006.
[96] D. Iwai, http://www-sens.sys.es.osaka-u.ac.jp/users iwai/, Mar. 2008.
[97] D. Iwai, K. Sato, “Heat Sensation in Image Creation with Thermal Vision,” Proc. ACM SIGCHI Int'l Conf. Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology (ACE '05), pp. 213-216, 2005.
6 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool