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Issue No.02 - Feb. (2014 vol.20)
pp: 211-222
Joseph Henry , University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
Hubert P.H. Shum , Northumbria University, Newcastle
Taku Komura , University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
ABSTRACT
The degrees of freedom of a crowd is much higher than that provided by a standard user input device. Typically, crowd-control systems require multiple passes to design crowd movements by specifying waypoints, and then defining character trajectories and crowd formation. Such multi-pass control would spoil the responsiveness and excitement of real-time control systems. In this paper, we propose a single-pass algorithm to control a crowd in complex environments. We observe that low-level details in crowd movement are related to interactions between characters and the environment, such as diverging/merging at cross points, or climbing over obstacles. Therefore, we simplify the problem by representing the crowd with a deformable mesh, and allow the user, via multitouch input, to specify high-level movements and formations that are important for context delivery. To help prevent congestion, our system dynamically reassigns characters in the formation by employing a mass transport solver to minimize their overall movement. The solver uses a cost function to evaluate the impact from the environment, including obstacles and areas affecting movement speed. Experimental results show realistic crowd movement created with minimal high-level user inputs. Our algorithm is particularly useful for real-time applications including strategy games and interactive animation creation.
INDEX TERMS
Trajectory, Real-time systems, Shape, Animation, Computational modeling, Visualization, input devices and strategies, Trajectory, Real-time systems, Shape, Animation, Computational modeling, Visualization, gaming, Three-dimensional graphics and realism, animation
CITATION
Joseph Henry, Hubert P.H. Shum, Taku Komura, "Interactive Formation Control in Complex Environments", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.20, no. 2, pp. 211-222, Feb. 2014, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2013.116
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