Subscribe

Issue No.07 - July (2013 vol.19)

pp: 1185-1198

Wenyao Zhang , Beijing Lab. of Intell. Inf. Technol., Beijing Inst. of Technol., Beijing, China

Yi Wang , Sch. of Mechatronical Eng., Beijing Inst. of Technol., Beijing, China

Jianfeng Zhan , State Key Lab. of Comput. Archit., Inst. of Comput. Technol., Beijing, China

Beichen Liu , Beijing Lab. of Intell. Inf. Technol., Beijing Inst. of Technol., Beijing, China

Jianguo Ning , Sch. of Mechatronical Eng., Beijing Inst. of Technol., Beijing, China

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TVCG.2012.169

ABSTRACT

Parallel streamline placement is still an open problem in flow visualization. In this paper, we propose an innovative method to place streamlines in parallel for 2D flow fields. This method is based on our proposed concept of local tracing areas (LTAs). An LTA is defined as a subdomain enclosed by streamlines and/or field borders, where the tracing of streamlines are localized. Given a flow field, it is initialized as an LTA, which is later recursively partitioned into hierarchical LTAs. Streamlines are placed within different LTAs simultaneously and independently. At the same time, to control the density of streamlines, each streamline is associated with an isolation zone and a saturation zone, both of which are center aligned with the streamline but have different widths. None of streamlines can trace into isolation zones of others. And new streamlines are only seeded within valid seeding areas (VSAs) that are enclosed by saturation zones and/or field borders. To implement the parallel strategy and the density control, a cell-based modeling is devised to describe isolation zones and LTAs as well as saturation zones and VSAs. With the help of these cell-based models, a heuristic seeding strategy is proposed to seed streamlines within irregular LTAs, and a cell-marking technique is used to control the seeding and tracing of streamlines. Test results show that the placement method can achieve highly parallel performance on shared memory systems without losing the quality of placements.

INDEX TERMS

Visualization, Streaming media, Parallel processing, Program processors, Clutter, Synchronization, Shape, streamline placement, Flow visualization, parallel algorithms, seeding strategies

CITATION

Wenyao Zhang, Yi Wang, Jianfeng Zhan, Beichen Liu, Jianguo Ning, "Parallel Streamline Placement for 2D Flow Fields",

*IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics*, vol.19, no. 7, pp. 1185-1198, July 2013, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.169REFERENCES

- [1] G. Turk and D. Banks, “Image-Guided Streamline Placement,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 453-460, 1996.- [2] X. Mao, Y. Hatanaka, H. Higashida, and A. Imamiya, “Image-Guided Streamline Placement on Curvilinear Grid Surfaces,”
Proc. IEEE Visualization '98, pp. 135-142, 1998.- [3] B. Jobard and W. Lefer, “Creating Evenly-Spaced Streamlines of Arbitrary Density,”
Proc. Eighth Eurographics Workshop Visualization in Scientific Computing, vol. 7, pp. 43-56, 1997.- [4] Z. Liu, R.J. MoorheadII, and J. Groner, “An Advanced Evenly-Spaced Streamline Placement Algorithm,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 965-973, Sept./Oct. 2006.- [5] B. Spencer, R.S. Laramee, G. Chen, and E. Zhang, “Evenly Spaced Streamlines for Surfaces: An Image-Based Approach,”
Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1618-1631, 2009.- [6] A. Mebarki, P. Alliez, and O. Devillers, “Farthest Point Seeding for Efficient Placement of Streamlines,”
Proc. IEEE Visualization '05, pp. 479-486, 2005.- [7] V. Verma, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “A Flow-Guided Streamline Seeding Strategy,”
Proc. IEEE Visualization '00, pp. 163-170, 2000.- [8] X. Ye, D. Kao, and A. Pang, “Strategy for Seeding 3D Streamlines,”
Proc. IEEE Visualization '05, pp. 471-478, 2005.- [9] G. Chen, K. Mischaikow, R.S. Laramee, P. Pilarczyk, and E. Zhang, “Vector Field Editing and Periodic Orbit Extraction Using Morse Decomposition,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 769-785, July/Aug. 2007.- [10] L. Li, H.-H. Hsieh, and H.-W. Shen, “Illustrative Streamline Placement and Visualization,”
Proc. IEEE Pacific Visualization Symp., pp. 79-86, 2008.- [11] Y. Chen, J.D. Cohen, and J.H. Krolik, “Similarity-Guided Streamline Placement with Error Evaluation,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1448-1155, Nov./Dec. 2007.- [12] W. Zhang and J. Deng, “Topology-Driven Streamline Seeding for 2D Vector Field Visualization,”
Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pp. 4901-4905, 2009.- [13] K. Wu, Z. Liu, S. Zhang, and R.J. MoorheadII, “Topology-Aware Evenly Spaced Streamline Placement,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 791-801, Sept./Oct. 2010.- [14] W. Zhang, B. Sun, and Y. Wang, “A Streamline Placement Method Highlighting Flow Field Topology,”
Proc. Int'l Conf. Computational Intelligence and Security, pp. 238-242, 2010.- [15] H. Yu, C. Wang, C. Shene, and J. Chen, “Hierarchical Streamline Bundles,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1353-1367, Aug. 2012.- [16] L. Xu, T.-Y. Lee, and H.-W. Shen, “An Information-Theoretic Framework for Flow Visualization,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1216-1224, Nov./Dec. 2010.- [17] K.L. Ma, J. Painter, C.D. Hansen, and M.F. Krogh, “Parallel Volume Rendering Using Binary-Swap Compositing,”
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 59-67, July 1994.- [18] B. Cabral and C. Leedom, “Highly Parallel Vector Visualization Using Line Integral Convolution,”
Proc. Seventh SIAM Conf. Parallel Processing for Scientific Computing, pp. 803-807, 1995.- [19] M. Zöckler, D. Stalling, and H. Hege, “Parallel Line Integral Convolution,”
Parallel Computing, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 975-989, 1997.- [20] H. Shen and D.L. Kao, “A New Line Integral Convolution Algorithm for Visualizing Time-Varying Flow Fields,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 98-108, Apr.-June 1998.- [21] S. Bachthaler, M. Strengert, D. Weiskopf, and T. Ertl, “Parallel Texture-Based Vector Field Visualization on Curved Surfaces Using GPU Cluster Computers,”
Proc. Eurographics Symp. Parallel Graphics and Visualization, pp. 75-82, 2006.- [22] D. Sujudi and R. Haimes, “Integration of Particle and Stream Lines in a Spatially-Decomposed Computation,”
Proc. Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics, 1996.- [23] L. Chen and I. Fujishiro, “Optimizing Parallel Performance of Streamline Visualization for Large Distributed Flow Datasets,”
Proc. IEEE VGTC Pacific Visualization Symp. '08, pp. 87-94, 2008.- [24] H. Yu, C. Wang, and K.L. Ma, “Parallel Hierarchical Visualization of Large Time-Varying 3D Vector Fields,”
Proc. ACM/IEEE Conf. Supercomputing '07, pp. 1-12, 2007.- [25] D. Pugmire, H. Childs, C. Garth, S. Ahern, and G. Weber, “Scalable Computation of Streamlines on Very Large Datasets,”
Proc. ACM/IEEE Conf. Supercomputing '09, pp. 16:1-16:12, 2009.- [26] T. Peterka, R. Ross, B. Nouanesengsey, T.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shen, W. Kendall, and J. Huang, “A Study of Parallel Particle Tracing for Steady-State and Time-Varying Flow Fields,”
Proc. 21st Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '11), pp. 580-591, May 2011.- [27] J.C. Butcher,
Numerical Methods for Ordinary Ddifferential Equations, pp. 59-95. Wiley, 2003.- [28] J. Helman and L. Hesselink, “Representation and Display of Vector Field Topology in Fluid Flow Data Sets,”
Computer, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 27-36, Aug. 1989.- [29] D. Stalling and H. Hege, “Fast and Resolution Independent Line Integral Convolution,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '95, pp. 249-256, 1995.- [30] G. Turk and D. Banks, “Streamline Package,” http://www. cc.gatech.edu/~turk/streamlines streamlines.html, 2011.
- [31] A. Mebarki, “Streamline Package,” http://amebarki.visiondz. infoRessources /, 2011.
- [32] G. Scheuermann, H. Hagen, and H. Krüger, “An Interesting Class of Polynomial Vector Fields,”
Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces II, M. Dæhlen, T. Lyche, and L. L. Schumaker, eds., pp. 429-436, Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1998.- [33] A. Mebarki, “2D Placement of Streamlines,” http://www.cgal. org/Manual/latest/doc_html/ cgal_manual/Stream_lines_2Chapter_main.html , 2011.
- [34] B. Nouanesengsy, T.-Y. Lee, and H.-W. Shen, “Load-Balanced Parallel Streamline Generation on Large Scale Vector Fields,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1785-1794, Dec. 2011.- [35] M. Hlawatsch, F. Sadlo, and D. Weiskopf, “Hierarchical Line Integration,”
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1148-1163, Aug. 2011. |