The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - March (2013 vol.19)
pp: 446-459
Lin Zheng , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Yingcai Wu , Microsoft Res. Asia, Beijing, China
Kwan-Liu Ma , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
ABSTRACT
Visualizing complex volume data usually renders selected parts of the volume semitransparently to see inner structures of the volume or provide a context. This presents a challenge for volume rendering methods to produce images with unambiguous depth-ordering perception. Existing methods use visual cues such as halos and shadows to enhance depth perception. Along with other limitations, these methods introduce redundant information and require additional overhead. This paper presents a new approach to enhancing depth-ordering perception of volume rendered images without using additional visual cues. We set up an energy function based on quantitative perception models to measure the quality of the images in terms of the effectiveness of depth-ordering and transparency perception as well as the faithfulness of the information revealed. Guided by the function, we use a conjugate gradient method to iteratively and judiciously enhance the results. Our method can complement existing systems for enhancing volume rendering results. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our approach.
INDEX TERMS
Rendering (computer graphics), Junctions, Image color analysis, Transfer functions, Visualization, Optimization, Solid modeling,visualization, Volume rendering, depth ordering, depth perception, transparency
CITATION
Lin Zheng, Yingcai Wu, Kwan-Liu Ma, "Perceptually-Based Depth-Ordering Enhancement for Direct Volume Rendering", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.19, no. 3, pp. 446-459, March 2013, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.144
REFERENCES
[1] E.H. Adelson, "Lightness Perception and Lightness Illusion," 1999.
[2] E.H. Adelson and P. An, "Ordinal Characteristics of Transparency," Proc. AAAI Workshop Qualitative Vision, pp. 77-81, 1990.
[3] A. Agresti, "A Survey of Exact Inference for Contingency Tables," Statistical Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 131-153, Feb. 1992.
[4] B.L. Anderson, "A Theory of Illusory Lightness and Transparency in Monocular and Binocular Images: The Role of Contour Junctions," Perception, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 419-453, 1997.
[5] C. Boucheny, G.-P. Bonneau, J. Droulez, G. Thibault, and S. Ploix, "A Perceptive Evaluation of Volume Rendering Techniques," ACM Trans. Applied Perception, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 23:1-23:24, 2009.
[6] S. Bruckner and E. Gröller, "Enhancing Depth-Perception with Flexible Volumetric Halo," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1344-1351, Nov./Dec. 2007.
[7] P. Calhoun, B. Kuszyk, D. Heath, J. Calrey, and E. Fishman, "Three-Dimensional Volume Rendering of Spiral CT Data: Theory and Method," RadioGraphics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 745-764, 1999.
[8] M.-Y. Chan, Y. Wu, W.-H. Mak, W. Chen, and H. Qu, "Perception-Based Transparency Optimization for Direct Volume Rendering," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, pp. 1283-1290, Nov./Dec. 2009.
[9] A. Chu, W.-Y. Chan, J. Guo, W.-M. Pang, and P.-A. Heng, "Perception-Aware Depth Cueing for Illustrative Vascular Visualization," Proc. Int'l Conf. BioMedical Eng. and Informatics, pp. 341-346, 2008.
[10] J. Chuang, D. Weiskopf, and T. Moller, "Hue-Preserving Color Blending," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, pp. 1275-1282, Nov. 2009.
[11] Z. Cipiloglu, A. Bulbul, and T. Capin, "A Framework for Enhancing Depth Perception in Computer Graphics," Proc. Symp. Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, pp. 141-148, 2010.
[12] C.D. Correa and K.-L. Ma, "Visibility Histograms and Visibility-Driven Transfer Functions," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 192-204, Feb. 2011.
[13] F. Escolano, P. Suau, and B. Bonev, Information Theory in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, second ed. Springer, 2009.
[14] M.H. Everts, H. Bekker, J.B. Roerdink, and T. Isenberg, "Depth-Dependent Halos: Illustrative Rendering of Dense Line Data," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1299-1306, Nov./Dec. 2009.
[15] R.A. Fisher, Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Oliver and Boyd, 1925.
[16] P.E. Greenwood and M.S. Nikulin, A Guide to Chi-squared Testing. Wiley, 1996.
[17] G.B. Hanna, S.M. Shimi, and A. Cuschieri, "Randomised Study of Influence of Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Imaging on Performance of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy," Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9098, pp. 248-251, 1998.
[18] V. Interrante, H. Fuchs, and S.M. Pizer, "Conveying the 3D Shape of Smoothly Curving Transparent Surfaces via Texture," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 98-117, Apr/June 1997.
[19] G. Kindlmann, R. Whitaker, T. Tasdizen, and T. Moller, "Curvature-Based Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering: Methods and Applications," Proc. IEEE Conf. Visualization, pp. 513-520, 2003.
[20] J. Kniss, S. Premoze, C. Hansen, P. Shirley, and A. McPherson, "A Model for Volume Lighting and Modeling," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 150-162, Apr./June 2003.
[21] E. Lum and K.-L. Ma, "Lighting Transfer Functions Using Gradient Aligned Sampling," Proc. IEEE Conf. Visualization, pp. 289-296, 2004.
[22] F. Metelli, "An Algebraic Development of the Theory of Perceptual Transparency," Ergonomic, vol. 13, pp. 59-66, 1970.
[23] F. Metelli, O.D. Pos, and A. Cavedon, "Balanced and Unbalanced, Complete and Partial Transparency," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 354-366, 1985.
[24] K.L. Novins, F.X. Sillion, and D.P. Greenberg, "An Efficient Method for Volume Rendering Using Perspective Projection," Proc. Workshop Volume Visualization, pp. 95-102, 1990.
[25] R.P. O'Shea, S.G. Blackburn, and H. Ono, "Contrast as a Depth Cue," Vision Research, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1595-1604, 1994.
[26] J.P.W. Pluim, A. Maintz, and M.A. Viergever, "Mutual-Information-Based Registration of Medical Images: A Survey," IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 986-1004, Aug. 2003.
[27] P. Rheingans and D.S. Ebert, "Volume Illustration: Nonphotorealistic Rendering of Volume Models," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 253-264, July-Sept. 2001.
[28] N. Rubin, "The Role of Junctions in Surface Completion and Contour Matching," Perception, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 339-366, 2001.
[29] Y. Rubner, "Perceptual Metrics for Image Database Navigation," PhD dissertation, Stanford Univ., 1999.
[30] M. Ruzon and C. Tomasi, "Edge, Junction, and Corner Detection Using Color Distributions," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1281-1295, Nov. 2001.
[31] Y. Sato, C.-F. Westin, A. Bhalerao, S. Nakajima, N. Shiraga, S. Tamura, and R. Kikinis, "Tissue Classification Based on 3D Local Intensity Structure for Volume Rendering," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 160-180, Apr.-June 2000.
[32] E. Saund, "Perceptual Organization of Occluding Contours of Opaque Surfaces," Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 70-82, 1999.
[33] M. Singh and B.L. Anderson, "Towards a Perceptual Theory of Transparency," Psychology Rev., vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 492-519, 2002.
[34] S. Takahashi, Y. Takeshima, I. Fujishiro, and G. Nielson, "Emphasizing Isosurface Embeddings in Direct Volume Rendering," Scientific Visualization: The Visual Extraction of Knowledge from Data, pp. 185-206, Springer, 2006.
[35] I. Viola, "Importance-Driven Expressive Visualization," PhD dissertation, Vienna Univ. of Tech nology, 2005.
[36] V. Šoltészová, D. Patel, and I. Viola, "Chromatic Shadows for Improved Perception," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 105-116, 2011.
[37] L. Wang, J. Giesen, K.T. McDonnell, P. Zolliker, and K. Mueller, "Color Design for Illustrative Visualization," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1739-1754, Nov. 2008.
[38] C. Ware, Information Visualization: Perception for Design, second ed., ch. 8. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
[39] Y. Wu and H. Qu, "Interactive Transfer Function Design Based on Editing Direct Volume Rendered Images," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1027-1040, Sept./Oct. 2007.
[40] R. Yagel, A. Kaufman, and Q. Zhang, "Realistic Volume Imaging," Proc. IEEE Conf. Visualization, pp. 226-231, 1991.
101 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool