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Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2649-2658
Nan Cao , Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. & Technol., Hong Kong, China
Yu-Ru Lin , Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA, USA
Xiaohua Sun , TongJi Univ., Shanghai, China
D. Lazer , Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA, USA
Shixia Liu , Microsoft Res. Asia, China
Huamin Qu , Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. & Technol., Hong Kong, China
ABSTRACT
When and where is an idea dispersed? Social media, like Twitter, has been increasingly used for exchanging information, opinions and emotions about events that are happening across the world. Here we propose a novel visualization design, “Whisper”, for tracing the process of information diffusion in social media in real time. Our design highlights three major characteristics of diffusion processes in social media: the temporal trend, social-spatial extent, and community response of a topic of interest. Such social, spatiotemporal processes are conveyed based on a sunflower metaphor whose seeds are often dispersed far away. In Whisper, we summarize the collective responses of communities on a given topic based on how tweets were retweeted by groups of users, through representing the sentiments extracted from the tweets, and tracing the pathways of retweets on a spatial hierarchical layout. We use an efficient flux line-drawing algorithm to trace multiple pathways so the temporal and spatial patterns can be identified even for a bursty event. A focused diffusion series highlights key roles such as opinion leaders in the diffusion process. We demonstrate how our design facilitates the understanding of when and where a piece of information is dispersed and what are the social responses of the crowd, for large-scale events including political campaigns and natural disasters. Initial feedback from domain experts suggests promising use for today's information consumption and dispersion in the wild.
INDEX TERMS
social networking (online), data mining, data visualisation, focused diffusion series, Whisper, spatiotemporal process, information diffusion, social media, Twitter, visualization design, temporal trend, social-spatial extent, sunflower metaphor, spatial hierarchical layout, flux line-drawing algorithm, temporal pattern, spatial pattern, Media, Monitoring, Real-time systems, Diffusion processes, Twitter, Social network services, spatiotemporal patterns, Information visualization, information diffusion, contagion, Social media, microblogging
CITATION
Nan Cao, Yu-Ru Lin, Xiaohua Sun, D. Lazer, Shixia Liu, Huamin Qu, "Whisper: Tracing the Spatiotemporal Process of Information Diffusion in Real Time", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2649-2658, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.291
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