The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2477-2485
Kim Marriott , Monash University
Helen Purchase , University of Glasgow
Michael Wybrow , Monash University
Cagatay Goncu , Monash University
We investigate the cognitive impact of various layout features—symmetry, alignment, collinearity, axis alignment and orthogonality—on the recall of network diagrams (graphs). This provides insight into how people internalize these diagrams and what features should or shouldn’t be utilised when designing static and interactive network-based visualisations. Participants were asked to study, remember, and draw a series of small network diagrams, each drawn to emphasise a particular visual feature. The visual features were based on existing theories of perception, and the task enabled visual processing at the visceral level only. Our results strongly support the importance of visual features such as symmetry, collinearity and orthogonality, while not showing any significant impact for node-alignment or parallel edges.
Visualization, Layout, Algorithm design and analysis, Educational institutions, Shape, Image edge detection, Topology, experiment, Network diagrams, graph layout, perceptual theories, visual features, diagram recall
Kim Marriott, Helen Purchase, Michael Wybrow, Cagatay Goncu, "Memorability of Visual Features in Network Diagrams", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2477-2485, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.245
[1] S. Ainsworth, Deft: A conceptual framework for considering learning with multiple representations Learning and Instruction, 16(6): 183-198, 2006.
[2] S. Appelle, Perception and discrimination as a function of stimulus ori-entation: The oblique effect in man and animals Psychological Bulletin., 78(4): 266-278, 1972.
[3] A. Baddeley and E. Warrington, Amnesia and the distinction between long- and short-term memory Verbal learning and verbal behavior, 9: 176-189, 1970.
[4] G. Battista, P. Eades, R. Tamassia,, and I. Tollis., Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Yisualisaion of Graphs. Prentice Hall, 1998.
[5] C. Bennett, J. Ryall, L. Spalteholz,, and A. Gooch., The aesthetics of graph visualisation., 2007.
[6] A. Blackwell., Thinking with Diagrams. Kluwer Academic, 2001.
[7] S. S. Bridgeman, J. Fanto, A. Garg, R. Tamassia, and L. Vismara., In-teractiveGiotto: An algorithm for interactive orthogonal graph drawing. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD‘97), 1353 of LNCS, pages 303-308. Springer, 1998.
[8] P. Brna, R. Cox, and J. Good, Learning to think and communicate with diagrams: 14 questions to consider Artificial Intelligence Review, 15(1-2): 115-134, 2001.
[9] M. B Brodeur, M. Chauret, G. Dion-Lessard,, and M. Lepage., Symmetry brings an impression of familiarity but does not improve recognition memory Acta Psychologica, 137(3): 359-370, 2011.
[10] V. Bruce, P. Green, and M. Georgeson., Visual Perception: physiology, psychology and ecology. Psychology Press, 2003.
[11] S. K Card, T. Moran, and A. Newell, The Model Human Processor: An engineering model of human performance., pages 1-35. Wiley, 1986.
[12] M. Coleman and D. Stott Parker., Aesthetics-based graph layout for human consumption. Software-Practice and Experience, 26(12): 1415-1438, 1996.
[13] R. Cox and P. Brna, Supporting the use of external representations in problem solving: the need for flexible learning environments Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 6(2-3): 239-302, 1995.
[14] A. D de Groot, Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton, 1965. (Original work in Dutch published in 1946).
[15] T. Dwyer, B. Lee, D. Fisher, K. Quinn, P. Isenberg, G. Robertson, and S. North, A comparison of user-generated and automatic graph layouts IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 15(6): 961-968, 2009.
[16] T. Dwyer, K. Marriott, and M. Wybrow., Topology preserving con-strained graph layout. In Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD ‘08), 4517 of LNCS, pages 230-241. Springer, 2009.
[17] B. Efron and R. J, Tibshirani An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, 1994.
[18] D. Egan and B. Schwartz, Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings Memory & Cognition, 7: 149-158, 1979. 10.3758/BF 03197595.
[19] Y. Frishman and A. Tal., Online dynamic graph drawing. In Eurographics/IEEE- VGTC Symposium on Visualization. Eurographics Association, 2007.
[20] W. Garner., The Processing of Information and Structure. Lawrence Erl-baum Associates, 1974.
[21] J. I Glasgow,N. H. Narayanan,, and B. Chandrasekaran, Diagrammatic Reasoning: Cognitive and Computational Perspectives. AAAI Press, 1995.
[22] W. Huang., Using eye-tracking to investigate graph layout effects, 2007.
[23] W. Huang, S. Hong, and P. Eades, Effects of sociogram drawing con-ventions and edge crossings in social network visualisation Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications, 11(2): 379-429, 2007.
[24] P. Johnson-Laird., Mental Models: Toward a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference and Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
[25] S. Kosslyn and J. Pomerantz, Imagery, propositions, and the form of internal representations Cognitive Psychology, 9:5276, 1977.
[26] H.-C. Lai,S. H.-L. Chien,, and W.- Y. Kuo., Visual short-term memory for abstract patterns: Effects of symmetry, element connectedness, and probe quadrant. Journal of Vision, 9(8), 2009.
[27] H. Lam, R. Rensink, and T. Munzner., Effects of 2D geometric transformations on visual memory. In Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APGV‘06), pages 119-126, 2006.
[28] K. Misue, P. Eades, W. Lai,, and K. Sugiyama., Layout adjustment and the mental map. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 6(2): 183-210, 1995.
[29] K. Nesbitt and C. Friedrich., Applying gestalt principles to animated visualisations of network data., 2002.
[30] D. Norman., Emotional Design: why we love (or hate) everyday things. Basic books, 2004.
[31] S. C. North and G. Woodhull., Online hierarchical graph drawing. 2265 of LNCS, pages 232-246. Springer, 2002.
[32] S. Palmer., Fundamental aspects of cognitive representations., pages 259-303. Erlbaum, 1978.
[33] S. Palmer., Goodness, Gestalt, Groups and Garner. American Psychological Association, 1991.
[34] L. Peterson and M. Peterson, Short-term retention of individual verbal items Experimental psychology, 58: 193-198, 1959. As discussed in Badelly and Warrington.
[35] B. Plimmer, H. Purchase, and H.- Y. Yang., Sketchnode: Intelligent sketching support and formal diagramming, 2010.
[36] H. Purchase., Which aesthetic has the greatest effect on human under-standing? In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD‘97), 1353 of LNCS, pages 248-261. Springer, 1998.
[37] H. Purchase, R. Cohen, and M. James., Validating graph drawing aesthetics. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD‘95), 1027 of LNCS, pages 435-446. Springer, 1996.
[38] H. Purchase, C. Pilcher, and B. Plimmer, Graph drawing aesthetics created by users not algorithms IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, page (preprint), 2010.
[39] H. Purchase and A. Samra., Extremes are better: Investigating mental map preservation in dynamic graphs. In Diagrammatic Representation and Inference, 5223 of LNCS, pages 60-73. Springer, 2008.
[40] M. M Schnore and J. T. Partington., Immediate memory for visual patterns: Symmetry and amount of information Psychonomic Science, 8: 421-422. 1967.
[41] R. N Shepard and J. Metzler., Mental rotation of three-dimensional ob-iects Science, 171: 701703, 1971.
[42] R. Spence., Information Visualization. ACM Press, 2001.
[43] K. Stenning., Seeing Reason: Image and Language in learning to think. Oxford University Press, 2002.
[44] B. Tversky, Visuospatial reasoning The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning, pages 209-249, 2005.
[45] F. van Ham and B. Rogowitz., Perceptual organisation in user-generated gaph layouts. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 14(6): 1333-1339, 2008.
[46] C. Ware., Information Visualisation: Perception for Design. Elsevier, 2004.
[47] C. Ware, H. Purchase, L. Colpoys,, and M. McGill., Cognitive mea-surements of graph aesthetics. Information Visualization, 1(2): 103-110, 2002.
[48] J. Zar., Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, 5th edition, 2009.
370 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool