The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2421-2430
Sung-Hee Kim , Purdue University
Zhihua Dong , Purdue University
Hanjun Xian , Purdue University
Benjavan Upatising , Purdue University
Ji Soo Yi , Purdue University
For information visualization researchers, eye tracking has been a useful tool to investigate research participants’ underlying cognitive processes by tracking their eye movements while they interact with visual techniques. We used an eye tracker to better understand why participants with a variant of a tabular visualization called ‘SimulSort’ outperformed ones with a conventional table and typical one-column sorting feature (i.e., Typical Sorting). The collected eye-tracking data certainly shed light on the detailed cognitive processes of the participants; SimulSort helped with decision-making tasks by promoting efficient browsing behavior and compensatory decision-making strategies. However, more interestingly, we also found unexpected eye-tracking patterns with Simul- Sort. We investigated the cause of the unexpected patterns through a crowdsourcing-based study (i.e., Experiment 2), which elicited an important limitation of the eye tracking method: incapability of capturing peripheral vision. This particular result would be a caveat for other visualization researchers who plan to use an eye tracker in their studies. In addition, the method to use a testing stimulus (i.e., influential column) in Experiment 2 to verify the existence of such limitations would be useful for researchers who would like to verify their eye tracking results.
Decision making, Data visualization, Tracking, Market research, Research and development, Crowdsourcing, peripheral vision, Visualized decision making, eye tracking, crowdsourcing, quantitative empirical study, limitations
Sung-Hee Kim, Zhihua Dong, Hanjun Xian, Benjavan Upatising, Ji Soo Yi, "Does an Eye Tracker Tell the Truth about Visualizations?: Findings while Investigating Visualizations for Decision Making", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2421-2430, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.215
[1] J. Bautista and G. Carenini., An empirical evaluation of interactive visualizations for preferential choice. In Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual inte-rfaces, pages 207-214, Napoli, Italy, 2008. ACM.
[2] J. R. Bettman,E. J. Johnson,, and J. W. Payne., A componential analysis of cognitive effort in choice Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 45(1): 111-139, Feb. 1990.
[3] S. E. Bonner, R. Hastie, G. Sprinkle,, and S. M. Young., A review of the effects of financial incentives on performance in laboratory tasks: Implications for management accounting Journal of Management Accounting Research, pages 19-64, Jan. 2000.
[4] D. M. Boush and B. Loken., A Process-Tracing study of brand extension evaluation Journal of Marketing Research, 28(1): 16-28, Feb. 1991.
[5] T. Brinck, D. Gergle, and S. Wood., Designing Web Sites That Work: Usability for the Web. Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
[6] M. Burch, N. Konevtsova, J. Heinrich., M. Hoeferlin, and D. Weiskopf, Evaluation of traditional, orthogonal, and radial tree diagrams by an eye tracking study Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17(12): 2440-2448, 2011.
[7] E. H. Creyer,J. R. Bettman,, and J. W. Payne., The impact of accuracy and effort feedback and goals on adaptive decision behavior Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 3: 1-16, Jan. 1990.
[8] B. Fasolo,G. H. McClelland,, and P. M. Todd., Escaping the tyranny of choice: When fewer attributes make choice easier. Marketing Theory, 7(1): 13-26, Mar. 2007.
[9] G. Gigerenzer and W. Gaissmaier, Heuristic decision making Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1): 451-482, Jan. 2011.
[10] M. G. Glaholt and E. M. Reingold., Eye movement monitoring as a process tracing methodology in decision making research Journal of Neu-roscience, Psychology, and Economics, 4(2): 125-146, May 2011.
[11] J. Goldberg and J. Helfman, Eye tracking for visualization evaluation: Reading values on linear versus radial graphs Information Visualization, 10(3): 182-195, 2011.
[12] V. Gonzalez and A. Kobsa., Benefits of information visualization systems for administrative data analysts. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information Visualization, IV ‘03, pages 331-336. IEEE Computer Society, 2003.
[13] c. P. Haugtvedt,K. A. Machleit,, and R. Yalch, Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behavior in The Vir-tual World. Psychology Press, Jan. 2005.
[14] J. J. Horton and L. B. Chilton., The labor economics of paid crowdsourcing. In Proceedings of the 11th ACM conference on Electronic commerce, EC ‘10, pages 209-218, New York, NY, USA, 2010. ACM.
[15] 1. Hur, S.-H. Kim, A. Samak,, and J. S. Yi., A comparative study of three sorting techniques in performing cognitive tasks on a tabular repre-sentation. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 2012. doi: 10.1080110447318.2012.713802.
[16] 1. Hur and J. S. Yi., SimulSort: multivariate data exploration through an enhanced sorting technique. In J. Jacko, editor, , Human-Computer Interaction. Novel Interaction Methods and Techniques, 5611 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 684-693. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2009.
[17] C. Hwang and K. Yoon., Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods And Applications: A State-of-the-art Survey. Springer-Verlag, 1981.
[18] A. Inselberg and B. Dimsdale., Parallel coordinates: A tool for visualizing multi-dimensional geometry. In Proceedings of the 1st conference on Visualization ‘90, VIS ‘90, pages 361-378, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 1990. IEEE Computer Society Press.
[19] R. J. Jacob and K. S. Karn., Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research: Ready to deliver the promises Mind, 2(3): 4, 2003.
[20] E. Johnson, J. Payne, J. Bettman,, and D. Schkade., Monitoring information processing and decisions: The mouselab system. Technical report, DTIC Document, 1989.
[21] E. J. Johnson and J. W. Payne., Effort and accuracy in choice Management Science, 31(4): 395-414, Apr. 1985.
[22] A. Kittur,E. H. Chi,, and B. Suh., Crowdsourcing user studies with mechanical turk. In Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pages 453-456, Florence, Italy, 2008. ACM.
[23] G. Lohse and E. Johnson., A comparison of two process tracing methods for choice tasks. In System Sciences, 1996., Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Hawaii International Conference on” 4, pages 8697. 1996.
[24] N. Lurie, Decision making in information-rich environments: The role of information structure Journal of Consumer Research, 30(4): 473-486, 2004.
[25] N. H. Lurie and C. H. Mason., Visual representation: Implications for decision making Journal of Marketing, 71(1): 160-177, 2007.
[26] S. P. Marshall., Identifying cognitive state from eye metrics Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(Supplement 1):B165-B175, 2007.
[27] W. Mason and S. Suri, Conducting behavioral research on amazon's mechanical turk SSRN eLibrary, pages 1-23, Oct. 2010.
[28] B. Pan, H. Hembrooke, G. Gay., L. Granka, M. Feusner,, and J. Newman., The determinants of web page viewing behavior: An eye-tracking study. In Proceedings of the 2004 symposium on Eye tracking research & appli-cations, pages 147-154, 2004.
[29] A. L. Patalano,B. J. Juhasz,, and J. Dicke., The relationship between inde-cisiveness and eye movement patterns in a decision making informational search task Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, pages 353-368, 2009.
[30] J. Payne, Task complexity and contingent processing in decision making: An information search and protocol analysis Organizational behavior and human performance, 16(2): 366-387, 1976.
[31] J. Payne, J. Bettman, and E. Johnson, Adaptive strategy selection in decision making Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14(3): 534-552, 1988.
[32] D. Peebles and P. C. Cheng., Modeling the effect of task and graphical representation on response latency in a graph reading task Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45(1): 28-46, Jan. 2003.
[33] K. Rayner, Eye movements in reading and information processing Psychological Bulletin, 85(3): 618-660, 1978.
[34] K. Rayner, Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research Psychological bulletin, 124(3): 372, 1998.
[35] N. Reisen, U. Hoffrage, and F. W. Mast., Identifying decision strategies in a consumer choice situation Judgment and decision making, 3(8): 641658, 2008.
[36] L. Rosen and P. Rosenkoetter, An eye fixation analysis of choice and judgment with multiattribute stimuli Memory & Cognition, 4(6): 747752, Nov. 1976.
[37] J. Ross, L. Irani, M. S. Silberman, A. Zaldivar, and B. Tomlinson., Who are the crowdworkers?: Shifting demographics in mechanical turk. In Proceedings of the 28th of the international conference extended ab-stracts on Human factors in computing systems, pages 2863-2872, At-lanta, Georgia, USA, 2010. ACM.
[38] S. Rudolph, A. Savikhin, and D. Ebert., FinVis: applied visual analytics for personal financial planning. In Visual Analytics Science and Technology, 2009. VAST 2009. IEEE Symposium on, pages 195-202, 2009.
[39] J. Russo and B. Dosher, Strategies for multiattribute binary choice Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(4): 676-696, 1983.
[40] A. Savikhin, R. Maciejewski, and D. Ebert., Applied visual analytics for economic decision-making. In Visual Analytics Science and Technology, 2008. VAST'08. IEEE Symposium on, pages 107-114, 2008.
[41] C. Seidl and S. Traub., Testing decision rules for multiattribute decision making. In Current trends in economics: theory and applications: proceedings of the third international meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory, Antalya, Turkey, June 1997, 8, page 413. Springer Verlag, 1999.
[42] A. Shah and D. Oppenheimer, Heuristics made easy: An effort-reduction framework Psychological bulletin, 134(2): 207-222, 2008.
[43] S. Shrestha, K. Lenz, B. Chaparro,, and J. Owens., “F” pattern scanning of text and images in web pages. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ereonomics Society Annual Meetine. 51(18): 1200-1204. Oct. 2007.
[44] M. Spenke and C. Beilken., InfoZoom - analysing formula one racing results with an interactive data mining and visualisation tool. In in Ebecken, N. Data mining II, pages 455-464, 2000.
[45] M. Spenke, C. Beilken, and T. Berlage., FOCUS: the interactive table for product comparison and selection. In Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, UIST ‘96, pages 41-50, New York, NY, USA, 1996. ACM.
[46] M. Steinberger, M. Waldner, M. Streit., A. Lex, and D. Schmalstieg, Context-Preserving visual links Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17(12): 2249-2258, Dec. 2011.
[47] Tobii Technology AB. Tobii studio 2.2 user manual.
[48] H. Y. Tsang, M. Tory, and C. Swindells., eSeeTrack - visualizing sequential fixation patterns IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 16(6): 953-962, Dec. 2010.
[49] A. Tversky, Elimination by aspects: A theory of choice Psychological review, 79(4): 281-299, 1972.
[50] C. Ware., Information visualization: perception for design. Morgan Kaufmann, Apr. 2004.
[51] E. J. Wegman., Hyperdimensional data analysis using parallel coordinates Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85(411): 664-675, 1990.
[52] M. Westenberg and P. Koele, Multi-attribute evaluation processes: Methodological and conceptual issues Acta Psychologica, 87(2-3): 6584, 1994.
[53] K. Wittenburg, T. Lanning, M. Heinrichs,, and M. Stanton., Parallel bargrams for consumer-based information exploration and choice. In Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, UIST ‘01, pages 51-60, New York, NY, USA, 2001. ACM.
[54] J. S. Yi, Y.-a. Kang, J. T. Stasko,, and J. A. Jacko., Understanding and characterizing insights: How do people gain insights using information visualization? In Proceedings of the 2008 conference on BEyond time and errors: novel evaLuation methodsfor Information Visualization, pages 16, Florence, Italy, 2008. ACM.
[55] K. Yoon and C. Hwang., Multiple Attribute Decision Making: An Intro-duction. SAGE, Jan. 1995.
47 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool