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Issue No.10 - Oct. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 1717-1730
Guoning Chen , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Vivek Kwatra , Google Inc., Mountain View
Li-Yi Wei , Microsoft Research, Redmond and The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Charles D. Hansen , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Eugene Zhang , Oregon State University, Corvallis
ABSTRACT
Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects.
INDEX TERMS
Bifurcation, Time varying systems, Animation, Aerodynamics, Topology, dynamic effects for surfaces., Time-varying vector fields, 2D vector fields, vector field design
CITATION
Guoning Chen, Vivek Kwatra, Li-Yi Wei, Charles D. Hansen, Eugene Zhang, "Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 10, pp. 1717-1730, Oct. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2011.290
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