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A Deformable Surface Model for Real-Time Water Drop Animation
Aug. 2012 (vol. 18 no. 8)
pp. 1281-1289
Shuai Wang, State Key Lab. of CAD&CG, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China
Huamin Wang, Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH, USA
Yizhong Zhang, State Key Lab. of CAD&CG, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China
Yiying Tong, Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI, USA
Kun Zhou, State Key Lab. of CAD&CG, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China
A water drop behaves differently from a large water body because of its strong viscosity and surface tension under the small scale. Surface tension causes the motion of a water drop to be largely determined by its boundary surface. Meanwhile, viscosity makes the interior of a water drop less relevant to its motion, as the smooth velocity field can be well approximated by an interpolation of the velocity on the boundary. Consequently, we propose a fast deformable surface model to realistically animate water drops and their flowing behaviors on solid surfaces. Our system efficiently simulates water drop motions in a Lagrangian fashion, by reducing 3D fluid dynamics over the whole liquid volume to a deformable surface model. In each time step, the model uses an implicit mean curvature flow operator to produce surface tension effects, a contact angle operator to change droplet shapes on solid surfaces, and a set of mesh connectivity updates to handle topological changes and improve mesh quality over time. Our numerical experiments demonstrate a variety of physically plausible water drop phenomena at a real-time rate, including capillary waves when water drops collide, pinch-off of water jets, and droplets flowing over solid materials. The whole system performs orders-of-magnitude faster than existing simulation approaches that generate comparable water drop effects.

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Index Terms:
water,approximation theory,capillary waves,computational fluid dynamics,computer animation,contact angle,deformation,drops,flow simulation,interpolation,jets,mesh generation,surface tension,two-phase flow,viscosity,flow simulation,deformable surface model,real-time water drop animation,viscosity,water drop motion,boundary surface,interpolation,approximation theory,Lagrangian theory,3D fluid dynamics,mean curvature flow operator,surface tension effect,contact angle operator,solid surface,mesh connectivity,mesh quality over time,water drop phenomena,capillary wave,pinch off,water jet,droplets,solid material,contact angle,Solids,Surface tension,Viscosity,Force,Deformable models,Surface waves,Numerical models,water drop simulation.,Deformable surface model,surface tension,mean curvature flow
Citation:
Shuai Wang, Huamin Wang, Yizhong Zhang, Yiying Tong, Kun Zhou, "A Deformable Surface Model for Real-Time Water Drop Animation," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1281-1289, Aug. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2011.141
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