This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Interactive Visibility Retargeting in VR Using Conformal Visualization
July 2012 (vol. 18 no. 7)
pp. 1027-1040
Min Zhang, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY, USA
C. Papadopoulos, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY, USA
K. Petkov, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY, USA
A. E. Kaufman, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY, USA
Xianfeng Gu, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY, USA
In Virtual Reality, immersive systems such as the CAVE provide an important tool for the collaborative exploration of large 3D data. Unlike head-mounted displays, these systems are often only partially immersive due to space, access, or cost constraints. The resulting loss of visual information becomes a major obstacle for critical tasks that need to utilize the users' entire field of vision. We have developed a conformal visualization technique that establishes a conformal mapping between the full 360^\circ field of view and the display geometry of a given visualization system. The mapping is provably angle-preserving and has the desirable property of preserving shapes locally, which is important for identifying shape-based features in the visual data. We apply the conformal visualization to both forward and backward rendering pipelines in a variety of retargeting scenarios, including CAVEs and angled arrangements of flat panel displays. In contrast to image-based retargeting approaches, our technique constructs accurate stereoscopic images that are free of resampling artifacts. Our user study shows that on the visual polyp detection task in Immersive Virtual Colonoscopy, conformal visualization leads to imprrenderingoved sensitivity at comparable examination times against the traditional rendering approach. We also develop a novel user interface based on the interactive recreation of the conformal mapping and the real-time regeneration of the view direction correspondence.

[1] C. Cruz-Neira, D.J. Sandin, T.A. DeFanti, R.V. Kenyon, and J.C. Hart, “The Cave: Audio Visual Experience Automatic Virtual Environment,” Comm. ACM, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 64-72, 1992.
[2] A. Hogue, M. Robinson, M.R. Jenkin, and R.S. Allison, “A Vision-Based Head Tracking System for Fully Immersive Displays,” Proc. Workshop Virtual Environments, pp. 179-187, 2003.
[3] W.P. Thurston, “Geometry and Topology of Three-Manifolds,” Princeton Lecture Notes, 1976.
[4] F. Qiu, B. Zhang, K. Petkov, L. Chong, A. Kaufman, K. Mueller, and X.D. Gu, “Enclosed Five-Wall Immersive Cabin,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Advances in Visual Computing (ISVC), pp. 891-900, 2008.
[5] M. Jin, J. Kim, F. Luo, and X. Gu, “Discrete Surface RICCI Flow,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1030-1043, Sept./Oct. 2008.
[6] Y.-L. Yang, J. Kim, F. Luo, S.-M. Hu, and X. Gu, “Optimal Surface Parameterization Using Inverse Curvature Map,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1054-1066, Sept./Oct. 2008.
[7] Y. Wang, X. Yin, J. Zhang, X. Gu, T.F. Chan, P.M. Thompson, and S.-T. Yau, “Brain Mapping with the RICCI Flow Conformal Parameterization and Multivariate Statistics on Deformation Tensors,” Proc. Second MICCAI Workshop Mathematical Foundations of Computational Anatomy, pp. 36-47, 2008.
[8] M. Jin, W. Zeng, F. Luo, and X. Gu, “Computing Teichmüller Shape Space,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 504-517, May/June 2009.
[9] X. Li, X. Gu, and H. Qin, “Surface Matching Using Consistent Pants Decomposition,” Proc. ACM Symp. Solid and Physical Modeling (SPM '08), pp. 125-136, 2008.
[10] B. Lévy, S. Petitjean, N. Ray, and J. Maillot, “Least Squares Conformal Maps for Automatic Texture Atlas Generation,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 162-170, 2002.
[11] B. Springborn, P. Schröder, and U. Pinkall, “Conformal Equivalence of Triangle Meshes,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1-11, 2008.
[12] R. Raskar, J.V. Baar, P. Beardsley, T. Willwacher, S. Rao, and C. Forlines, “iLamps: Geometrically Aware and Self-Configuring Projectors,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, 2005.
[13] Y. Yang, J.X. Chen, and M. Beheshti, “Nonlinear Perspective Projections and Magic Lenses: 3D View Deformation,” Computer Graphics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 76-84, 2005.
[14] E. Pietriga, O. Bau, and C. Appert, “Representation-Independent in-Place Magnification with Sigma Lenses,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 455-467, May/June 2010.
[15] L. Wang, Y. Zhao, K. Mueller, and A. Kaufman, “The Magic Volume Lens: An Interactive Focus + Context Technique for Volume Rendering,” Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 367-374, 2005.
[16] C. Correa, D. Silver, and M. Chen, “Illustrative Deformation for Data Exploration,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1320-1327, Nov. 2007.
[17] H. Lorenz and J. Döllner, “Real-Time Piecewise Perspective Projections,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (GRAPP), pp. 147-155, 2009.
[18] M. Trapp and J. Döllner, “Generalization of Single-Center Projections Using Projection Tile Screens,” Advances in Computer Graphics and Computer Vision (VISIGRAPP), 2008.
[19] L. Hong, S. Muraki, A. Kaufman, D. Bartz, and T. He, “Virtual Voyage: Interactive Navigation in the Human Colon,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 27-34, 1997.
[20] C.D. Johnson and A.H. Dachman, “CT colonography: The Next Colon Screening Examination?” Radiology, vol. 216, no. 2, pp. 331-341, 2000.
[21] W. Hong, J. Wang, F. Qiu, A. Kaufman, and J. Anderson, “Colonoscopy Simulation,” Proc. SPIE Medical Imaging, vol. 6511, 2007.
[22] K. Petkov, C. Papadopoulos, M. Zhang, A.E. Kaufman, and X. Gu, “Conformal Visualization for Partially-Immersive Platforms,” Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), pp. 143-150, 2011.
[23] B. Chow, “The RICCI Flow on the 2-Sphere,” J. Differential Geometry, vol. 2, no. 33, pp. 325-334, 1991.
[24] K. Stephenson, Introduction To Circle Packing. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005.
[25] M. Spindler, M. Bubke, T. Germer, and T. Strothotte, “Camera Textures,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and Southeast Asia (GRAPHITE), pp. 295-302, 2006.
[26] M. Hadwiger, J.M. Kniss, C. Rezk-salama, and D. Weiskopf, Real-Time Vol. Graphics, A K Peters, 2006.
[27] B. Liu, L.-Y. Wei, X. Yang, Y.-Q. Xu, and B. Guo, “Nonlinear Beam Tracing on a GPU,” Technical Report MSR-TR-2007-34, Microsoft Research, 2007.
[28] S. Popov, J. Günther, H.-P. Seidel, and P. Slusallek, “Stackless Kd-Tree Traversal for High Performance GPU Ray Tracing,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 415-424, 2007.
[29] M. Zlatuska and V. Havran, “Ray Tracing on a GPU with CUDA—Comparative Study of Three Algorithms,” Proc. WSCG, 2010.

Index Terms:
virtual reality,conformal mapping,data visualisation,user interfaces,real-time regeneration,interactive visibility,virtual reality,visual information,conformal visualization technique,conformal mapping,shape-based features,backward rendering pipelines,forward rendering pipelines,stereoscopic images,visual polyp detection task,immersive virtual colonoscopy,user interface,Measurement,Data visualization,Rendering (computer graphics),Conformal mapping,Geometry,Shape,Visualization,partially immersive.,Virtual reality,conformal visualization,Ricci flow,GPU,immersive cabin,CAVE
Citation:
Min Zhang, C. Papadopoulos, K. Petkov, A. E. Kaufman, Xianfeng Gu, "Interactive Visibility Retargeting in VR Using Conformal Visualization," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1027-1040, July 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2011.278
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.