The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - May (2012 vol.18)
pp: 741-752
H. P. H. Shum , RIKEN, Saitama, Japan
T. Komura , Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
S. Yamazaki , DHRC, AIST, Tokyo, Japan
ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a new methodology for synthesizing animations of multiple characters, allowing them to intelligently compete with one another in dense environments, while still satisfying requirements set by an animator. To achieve these two conflicting objectives simultaneously, our method separately evaluates the competition and collaboration of the interactions, integrating the scores to select an action that maximizes both criteria. We extend the idea of min-max search, normally used for strategic games such as chess. Using our method, animators can efficiently produce scenes of dense character interactions such as those in collective sports or martial arts. The method is especially effective for producing animations along story lines, where the characters must follow multiple objectives, while still accommodating geometric and kinematic constraints from the environment.
INDEX TERMS
search problems, computer animation, minimax techniques, kinematic constraint, multiple character interaction simulation, collaborative goal, adversarial goal, multiple character animation synthesis, interaction competition, interaction collaboration, min-max search, strategic game, dense character interaction, collective sports, martial arts, animation production, geometric constraint, Games, Animation, Computational modeling, Motion segmentation, Optimization, Equations, Electronic mail, character interaction., Character animation
CITATION
H. P. H. Shum, T. Komura, S. Yamazaki, "Simulating Multiple Character Interactions with Collaborative and Adversarial Goals", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 5, pp. 741-752, May 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.257
REFERENCES
[1] H.P.H. Shum, T. Komura, and S. Yamazaki, "Simulating Competitive Interactions Using Singly Captured Motions," Proc. ACM Symp. Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 65-72, 2007.
[2] J. Lee and K.H. Lee, "Precomputing Avatar Behavior from Human Motion Data," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '04, pp. 79-87, 2004.
[3] A. Treuille, Y. Lee, and Z. Popovic', "Near-Optimal Character Animation with Continuous Control," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 7:1-7:7, 2007.
[4] H.P.H. Shum, T. Komura, M. Shiraishi, and S. Yamazaki, "Interaction Patches for Multi-Character Animation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 5, 2008.
[5] H.P.H. Shum, T. Komura, and S. Yamazaki, "Simulating Interactions of Avatars in High Dimensional State Space," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '08, pp. 131-138, 2008.
[6] M. Gleicher, "Retargetting Motion to New Characters," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 33-42, 1998.
[7] J. Lee and S.Y. Shin, "A Hierarchical Approach to Interactive Motion Editing for Human-Like Figures," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 39-48, 1999.
[8] Y. Abe, C.K. Liu, and Z. Popović, "Momentum-Based Parameterization of Dynamic Character Motion," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '04, pp. 173-182, 2004.
[9] O. Arikan and D. Forsyth, "Motion Generation from Examples," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 483-490, 2002.
[10] J. Lee, J. Chai, P.S.A. Reitsma, J.K. Hodgins, and N.S. Pollard, "Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 491-500, 2002.
[11] L. Kovar, M. Gleicher, and F. Pighin, "Motion Graphs," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 473-482, 2002.
[12] L. Kovar and M. Gleicher, "Automated Extraction and Parameterization of Motions in Large Data Sets," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 559-568, 2004.
[13] T. Mukai and S. Kuriyama, "Geostatistical Motion Interpolation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1062-1070, 2005.
[14] A. Safonova and J.K. Hodgins, "Construction and Optimal Search of Interpolated Motion Graphs," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 106, 2007.
[15] M. Lau and J.J. Kuffner, "Behavior Planning for Character Animation," Proc. the ACM SIGGRAPH' 05, pp. 271-280, 2005.
[16] T. Kwon and S.Y. Shin, "Motion Modeling for On-Line Locomotion Synthesis," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05, pp. 29-38, 2005.
[17] R. Heck and M. Gleicher, "Parametric Motion Graphs," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2007.
[18] H.J. Shin and H.S. Oh, "Fat Graphs: Constructing an Interactive Character with Continuous Controls," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '06, pp. 291-298, 2006.
[19] S.I. Park, T. Kwon, H.J. Shin, and S.Y. Shin, "Analysis and Synthesis of Interactive Two-Character Motions," Technical Note, CS/TR-2004-194, KAIST, 2004.
[20] T. Kwon, Y.-S. Cho, S.I. Park, and S.Y. Shin, "Two-Character Motion Analysis and Synthesis," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 707-720, May 2008.
[21] C.K. Liu, A. Hertzmann, and Z. Popović, "Composition of Complex Optimal Multi-Character Motions," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '06, pp. 215-222, 2006.
[22] R.S. Sutton and A.G. Barto, Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. MIT Press, 1998.
[23] L. Ikemoto, O. Arikan, and D. Forsyth, "Learning to Move Autonomously in a Hostile World," Technical Report UCB/CSD-5-1395, Univ. California, 2005.
[24] W.-Y. Lo and M. Zwicker, "Real-Time Planning for Parameterized Human Motion," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '08, 2008.
[25] T. Graepel, R. Herbrich, and J. Gold, "Learning to Fight," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Games: Artificial Intelligence Design and Education (CGAIDE '04), pp. 193-200, 2004.
[26] K. Wampler, E. Andersen, E. Herbst, Y. Lee, and Z. Popovic, "Character Animation in Two-Player Adversarial Games," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1-13, 2010.
[27] T. Kwon, K.H. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Takahashi, "Group Motion Editing," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '08, pp. 1-8, 2008.
[28] Y.-C. Lai, S. Chenney, and S. Fan, "Group Motion Graphs," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05, 2005.
[29] S. Takahashi, K. Yoshida, T. Kwon, K.H. Lee, J. Lee, and S.Y. Shin, "Spectral-Based Group Formation Control," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 639-648, 2009.
[30] E.S.L. Ho and T. Komura, "Character Motion Synthesis by Topology Coordinates," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 299-308, 2009.
[31] E.S.L. Ho, T. Komura, and C.-L. Tai, "Spatial Relationship Preserving Character Motion Adaptation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1-8, 2010.
[32] M. Kim, K. Hyun, J. Kim, and J. Lee, "Synchronized Multi-Character Motion Editing," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1-9, 2009.
[33] M. Gleicher, H.J. Shin, L. Kovar, and A. Jepsen, "Snap-Together Motion: Assembling Run-Time Animations," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 181-188, 2003.
[34] T. Jakobsen, "Advanced Character Physics," Proc. Game Developers Conf., pp. 383-401, 2001.
[35] V.B. Zordan and J.K. Hodgins, "Motion Capture-Driven Simulations that Hit and React," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 89-96, 2002.
[36] O. Arikan, D.A. Forsyth, and J.F. O'Brien, "Pushing People Around," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05, pp. 59-66, 2005.
[37] V.B. Zordan, A. Majkowska, B. Chiu, and M. Fast, "Dynamic Response for Motion Capture Animation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 697-701, 2005.
[38] D. Carmel and S. Markovitch, "Learning and Using Opponent Models in Adversary Search," Technical Report CIS9609, Technion, 1996.
[39] J.V. Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton Univ. Press, 1944.
7 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool