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Dense and Dynamic 3D Selection for Game-Based Virtual Environments
April 2012 (vol. 18 no. 4)
pp. 634-642
3D object selection is more demanding when, 1) objects densly surround the target object, 2) the target object is significantly occluded, and 3) when the target object is dynamically changing location. Most 3D selection techniques and guidelines were developed and tested on static or mostly sparse environments. In contrast, games tend to incorporate densly packed and dynamic objects as part of their typical interaction. With the increasing popularity of 3D selection in games using hand gestures or motion controllers, our current understanding of 3D selection needs revision. We present a study that compared four different selection techniques under five different scenarios based on varying object density and motion dynamics. We utilized two existing techniques, Raycasting and SQUAD, and developed two variations of them, Zoom and Expand, using iterative design. Our results indicate that while Raycasting and SQUAD both have weaknesses in terms of speed and accuracy in dense and dynamic environments, by making small modifications to them (i.e., flavoring), we can achieve significant performance increases.

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Index Terms:
virtual reality,computer games,iterative methods,user interfaces,iterative design,dense 3D object selection,dynamic 3D object selection,game-based virtual environment,3D selection techniques,3D selection guidelines,sparse environment,hand gesture,motion controller,object density,motion dynamics,Raycasting technique,SQUAD technique,zoom variation,expand variation,Three dimensional displays,Games,Guidelines,Accuracy,Usability,Context,Color,dense and dynamic objects.,Interaction techniques,game-based virtual environments,3D object selection
J. Cashion, C. Wingrave, J. J. LaViola, "Dense and Dynamic 3D Selection for Game-Based Virtual Environments," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 634-642, April 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.40
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